PR History

  1. Laid the public acceptance and public policy foundations for the nation's telephone system. Pioneered corporate PR with AT&T. Understood the necessity for improving relationships between corporations and publi (1883).
    Theodore N. Vail
  2. Established first corporate PR department in 1889 for his new electric corporation. He competed with Edison;s electric company. Hired Ernest H. Heinrichs to serve as his personal press representative.
    George Westinghouse
  3. Key member of President Jackson's :Kitchen Cabinet." he served as pollster, counselor, ghost writer and publicist. Jackson's political campaigns and government policies clearly reveal the influenece of Kendall's strategy, sense of public opionion and skills as a communicator
    Amos Kendall
  4. From muckraking Seedbed Era. wrote History of Standard Oil Co. Produced violent public reaction.
    Ida Tarbell
  5. 1900-1917. Muckraking journalism countered by defensive publicity and of far-reaching political reforms promoted by Theodore Roosevelt. Ivy Lee-full disclosure and tell the truth. Bernays - Public be informed. Defensive publicity.
    Seedbed Era
  6. From muckraking Seedbed Era. Wrote novel The Jungle to expose the foul conditions in meatpacking industry. Produced violent public reaction.
    Upton Sinclair
  7. From muckraking Seedbed Era. Wrote Frenzied Finance as a series in McClure's magazine.
    Thomas W. Lawson
  8. First master of press agentry. Credited with paving way for today's sports promotions like Superbowl / Dayton 500.
    P.T. Barnum
  9. Six Eras of Public Relations
    • 1.Seedbed Era (1900-1917)
    • 2. World War I Period (1917-1919)
    • 3. Booming Twenties Era (1919 - 1929)
    • 4. Roosevelt Era & WWII (1930-1945)
    • 5. Postwar Era (1945 - 1965)
    • 6. Global Information Society (1965 - )
  10. First international firm (first account was to promote Phillippine Islands). Founded in 1908 by Hamilton Mercer
    Hamilton Wright Organization
  11. Formed partnership with Ivy Lee during Seedbed Era
    George Parker
  12. First to use full-time publicists in a fund drive. Rasised $350,000 for YMCA. Easily recognized in today's United Way format.
    Charles Summer Ward / Lyman Pierce
  13. Started Committee on Public Information (CPI or the Creel Committee). HEaded by George Creel. Mobilized public opinion to support effort. PR counselors to U.S. government.
    President Woodrow Wilson
  14. Married to Edward Bernays. Helped run their firm "Edward L. Bernays, Counsel of Public Relations." Kept her birth name long before accepted. Said to have influenced Bernays' ideas.
    Doris Fleischman
  15. First Systematic Effort to Raise Funds
    Harvard College... fund-raising brochure
  16. At age 28, was the association chairman of teh CPI (Committee on Publi Information / The Creel Committee).
    Carl Byoir
  17. Arthur Page's six priciples of PR
    • 1. Tell the truth
    • 2. Prove it with action
    • 3. Listen to the customer
    • 4. Manage for tomorrow
    • 5. Conduct PR as if the whole company depends on it
    • 6. Remain calm, patient and good humored
  18. Dramatic demonstrations of the power of organized promotion to kindle fervent patriotism: to sell war bonds, enlist soliders and raise millions of dollars for welfare.
    World War I Period (1917 - 1919)
  19. First woman to head a national PR association as president of CASE (Council for the Advacement and Support of Education.
    Alice L. Beeman
  20. First black to serve as PRSA president and first black accredited by PRSA. His firm hired to communicate solely with black consumer market.
    Joseph Varney Baker
  21. Era of promoting products, earning acceptance of chnage brought on by war accelerated technology, winning political battles, raising millions for charitable causes, Anti-Saloon League and women's suffrage
    Booming Twenties Era
  22. 1945 - 1965. Adjustment as nation moved from a war-oriented economy to a post-industrial, service-oriented economy and shouldered leadership of the free world. This era brought widespread acceptance of PR as the number of practioners passed 100,000. Also brought strong professional associations, beginnings of PR education and emergence of TV as powerful medium.
    Postwar Era
  23. - Understanding media
    - "Global Village"
    - The medium is in the message.
    Marshall McLuhan
  24. Aviation enthusiast / wartime flyer. Publicity and PR projects did much to spread America's acceptance of air age.
    Harry A. Bruno
  25. Movement toward public responsibility in provate business to regain credibility; greatest government PR advancements under FDR; Roper and Gallup polls begin; paid advertising to forefront as PR tool; 1942 Office of War info.
    Roosevelt and Post WWII Era
  26. 1965-Present. Accelerating technology, multiplying channels of communication and transition from a national economy to a world economy featuringglobal interdependence and global competition. Stresses from these profound changes placed a heavier burder on PR and its role in mediating conflicting interests to bring out mutual adjustment and accomodation
    Global Information Society
  27. Formed first political PR firm in the U.S. in 1933 with her husband and partner Clem Whitaker. Based in San Francisco.
    Leone Baxter
  28. Wrote "Public Opinion" (1922). He described several communication barriers; artificial censorship, gatekeepers in the media, shrinking news holes, limitation of social contract, meager time available to pay attention, distortion from compressing events into short messages (sound bites), difficulty expressing a big, complicated world in short messages, fear of facing facts preceived to threaten established routines.
    Walter Lipman
  29. Started social work publicity. Played a role in birth pf National Publicity Council for welfare agencies. The National Publicity Council became the National Communications Council for Human Services in 1975 and then merged into PRSA in 1977.
    Evart Routzahn / Mary Swain Routzahn
  30. Samuel Adams
    • Organization - Sons of Liberty, Committees of Correspondence
    • Symbols - Liberty Tree
    • Slogans - Taxation without Representation
    • Staged Events - Boston Tea Party
  31. Chairman of the Committee on Public Information during WWI, and understood the power of publicity to mobilize the public. He started the "Four Minutemen" and created "spokespersons" from key interest groups such as lawyers, actors, journalists, teachers. Used persuasive tactics to dehumanize the enemy.
    George Creel
  32. Founded the American Counsel that ultimately became PRSA through mergers of other public relations organizations (1947). Began teaching PR courses at Stanford.
    Rex Harlow
  33. Key member of President Jackson's Kitchen Cabinet, he excelled at creating events to mold opinion. Pollster, counselor, ghostwriter and publicist (1820s- 30s)
    Amos Kendall
  34. An AT&T vice president who helped set the standard for corporate PR. Said a company's performance would be determined by its public reputation. (1927) Set standard for corporate PR.
    Arthur Page
  35. Considered the father of modern PR. First to advocate factual, truthful exposition of information, abolition of secrecy in dealing with media and need for good corporate policies and performance as a requisite for favorable public recognition. Counseled Rockefellers. Official for Penn. Railroad. Teamed with George Parker in 1904 to form a PR counseling firm.
    Ivy Lee
  36. First president to exploit news media as a new and powerful tool of presidential leadership. He won battles on front pages and over radio, all a new medium. Created "New Deal" and gave "Fireside Chats."
    Theodore Roosevelt
  37. Public relations advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt until he died. Recognized that mutually beneficial publi relationships could be built by coupling responsible performace with persuasive publicity. Served FDR from 1912-1936.
    Louis McHenry Howe
  38. Director of the Office of War Information created by FDR during WWII. Pioneered widespread use of radio, Hollywood and media to publicize the war effort.
    Elmer Davis
  39. Wrote Crystallizing Public Opinion, the first book on PR, and coined the term PR counsel. Taught the first course in PR at New York University, and was the firt to call himself a PR professional. Among the first to advocate licensure. Often referred to as the "father of public relations.: (1920s)
    Edward L. Bernays
Card Set
PR History
public relations history terms and figures