Endocrine System

  1. Hormones are regulated by:
    neg feedback

    • Chemical substances secreted from glands into bl stream
    • endocrine glands=ductless glands
  2. Hypothalamus sits between:
    houses the:
    • between brain stem and cerebrum
    • pituitary gland
    • RELEASING HORMONES that travel via bl to pituitary gland--which then hormone released--then to target tissues.
  3. Hypothalamus and pituitary work together
    They regulate:
    • Temp
    • Fl vol
    • growth
    • pain and pleasure response
    • hunger and thirst
  4. Pituitary sites beneath:
    • hypothalamus
    • master gland
    • adenohypophysis
    • neurohypophysis
  5. Anterior pituitary gland Hormones:
    • Growth hormones
    • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • Melanocyte simulating hormone (controls pig in skin)
    • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (ovary egg and sperm dev)
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH) (stim ov and secretion of sex hormones in males and females)
    • Prolactin
  6. Posterior pituitary
    • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • Oxytocin (Uterine contraction and release of milk)
  7. Most common Endocrine Disorders
    • -Thyroid abnormalities
    • -Risk for Diabetes Mellitus
  8. Blood level in TSH inc, which releases T4 and T3
    • Thyroxine
    • Triiodthyronine (both involved in metabolic rate management)
    • Thyrocalcitonin-- dec excess Ca+ levels in blood (moves Ca+ into bones)
  9. Too much thyroid hormone (t3, t4 or both)= (3 things)
    • Hyperthyroidism/ THYROTOXICOSIS
    • Graves disease
    • Thyrotoxic crisis-- Thyroid storm
  10. Graves Disease
    Autoimmune response-- inc production of TH=enlargement of thyroid gland
  11. Exophthalmos
    • Startled expression of eyes-- impaired venous drainage from eye
    • TX may not releive symptoms
  12. Thyrotoxic Crisis aka
    • Thyroid Storm
    • Extreme state hyperthyroidism
    • Sudden inc in metabolism= ht rate inc, high fever, htn, apprehensive=seizures, comatose, can die
    • Causes: untreated hyperthy, infection, physical or emo trauma or thyroid surgery
  13. TX for Thyroid Storm
    • -Antithyroid meds= proplthiouracil (Prophyl-Thyracil) =reduce thyroid hormone (not destroy)
    • -hypothermic blanket
    • -NO ASA for hypothermia-can in TH level
  14. Hyperthyroidism diagnostic tests
    • t3 and t4 elevated
    • TSH level- subnormal or sometimes not measurable
    • Serum calcium elevated
    • Serum phosphorus low
    • (TH inc, TSH goes down=negative feedback)
    • RAI (radioactive iodine uptake)=next slide
  15. RAI (radioactive iodine uptake)
    • Measure ability thyroid gland to concentrate injesten iodine
    • amt radioactive iodine admin po capsule or drink (tracer dose)
    • acter 24 hr, meas by Geiger Counter (scintillator) held near thyroid to measure amt radioactive iodine stored
    • I-131 or I 215
    • Hyper= high % iodine, Hypro= low % iodine
  16. Euthytoid
    normal thyroid
  17. Antithyroid drugs
    (w beta blocker)
    • Mthimazone (Tapazole)
    • Propylthiouracil (Propyl-Thyracil) (PTU)
    • betablocker= Protranolol (Inderal)--relives thyrotoxicosis
  18. Iodine Sources (drugs)
    • Potassium iodide, saturated solution (SSKI)
    • Strong iodine solution (Lugol's solution)
    • (inhibits iodine hormone production--no shellfish w this)
Card Set
Endocrine System
first 10 pages