Renal Histo S2M2

  1. The outer and inner portions of the kidney are called
    • Renal cortex (outer)
    • Renal medulla (inner)
  2. How many pyramids are in the renal medulla
  3. Where is most of the blood found passing through the kidneys
    • Cortex (95%)
    • Medulla (5%)
  4. What is found in the medulla of the kidney
    Straight tubules and collecting ducts
  5. What does the apex of the pyramids project into
    Intitial part of the collecting system, Minor Calyces
  6. How many Nephrons are in a single kidney
    1-4 million
  7. Nephron
    The individual functional unit of the kidney
  8. Renal corpuscle is made up of
    • Glomerular capillaries (glomerulus)
    • Bowmans capsule
  9. What are the layers of the Bowmans capsule
    Visceral and parietal
  10. What is found between the visceral and parietal layers of the Bowmans capsule
    Urinary space
  11. What does the urinary space feed into
    Renal tubules (proximal convoluted tubule)
  12. What is the first step of urine formation
    Filtrate in the Bowmans capsule derived from the Glomerular capillaries
  13. What is the vascular pole
    This is the space between the afferent and efferent arterioles entering into the glomerulus
  14. Under normal circumstances, what size of molecules pass through into the urinary space
    Molecules smaller then albumin (68kD)
  15. The Glomerulus has what type of endothelium
    Fenestrated covered by Podocytes
  16. Podocytes
    • Visceral layer of the Bowmans capsule with cellular extensions that divide into pedicels
    • They are also phagocytic cells
  17. What is the difference in the Urinary pole and Vascular pole
    • Urinary pole is where the urinary space empties into the Proximal convoluted tubule
    • Vascular pole is where the Glomerular capillaries enter the Nephron
  18. Where are the nuclei of the Podocytes found
    Bulging into the urinary space
  19. Extension of the Podocytes form what
  20. What size of molecules can fit through the filtration slits made by pedicels
    <65 kD
  21. Filtration slit (sleeve)
    Space between pedicels, they contain diaphragms giving them selectivity of what passes through convoluted tubule
  22. What is found between the pedicels and the glomerular capillaries (fenestrated endothelium)
    Three layers of Basal lamina (lamina rara, lamina densa, lamina rara)
  23. What kind of charge is found between the Pedicels and the fenestrated epithelium of the glomerular capillaries
    Negative charge
  24. Mesangial cells
    • These are found in between the capillary loops of the arterioles in the glomerulus and in the vascular pole
    • These cells are Contractile and Phagocytic
  25. Lacis cells (Extraglomerular mesangial)
    • Cells found in the vascular pole
    • These make Erythropoietin
  26. Intraglomerular mesangial cells
    • These are the cells found between the Glomerular capillaries
    • They can contract and phagocytose
  27. Macula Densa
    These are cells from the distal convoluted tubule that are attached to the vascular pole via Lacis cells and Juxtaglomerular cells
  28. Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
    • Longest tubule in the cortex
    • Performs resorption of protein, majority of ions, glucose, and water
  29. What cell type is found in the Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) and how do they stain
    • Simple cuboidal with long microvilli (brush border)
    • Stains acidophilic
    • Has basal striations
  30. What are the different limb types in the loop of Henle and what type of cells are they they made up of
    • Thick limb (simple low cuboidal)
    • Thin limb (simple squamous)
  31. Where is the Thin limb of the loop of Henle always found
    In the medulla of the kidney
  32. What are the most important Nephrons and how prevelant are they
    • Juxtamedullary nephrons
    • They make up 1/7 of all of the nephrons
  33. What happens in the thick ascending limb of the Loop of Henle
    • Na+ and Cl- are actively pumped into the collecting tubule
    • It is impermeable to water
  34. What is the permeability of the descending thin limb of the loop of Henle
    It is permeable to water
  35. What is the permeability of the ascending thin limb of the loop of Henle
    • Na+ and Cl- passively diffuse into the collecting tubules
    • It is impermeable to water
  36. Distal convoluted tubule is found where
    In the cortex as the last segment of the Nephron
  37. What is the job of the Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
    Controls the total salt and water content in the body
  38. What type of cells are found in the distal convoluted tubule
    Simple cuboidal with few microvilli
  39. What is the effect of Aldosterone on the Distal convoluted tubule
    Na+ is absorbed and K+ is secreted
  40. When looking at the PCT and DCT from a microscope, how can you tell the difference
    • PCT is more acidophilic and has a brush border
    • DCT has more nuclei and no brush border and a larger lumen
  41. Juxtaglomerular apparatus
    Regulates the blood pressure by sensing the pressure and releasing Renin in response to low BP
  42. Juxtagolmerular cells are found where, and are made of what
    • In the wall of the afferent arteriole
    • Made of modified smooth muscle cells
    • These cells sense BP and produce Renin when it is low
  43. What special ability do the Macula densa cells have
    They can sense Na+ concentration in the distal convoluted tubule
  44. What is the sequential effect of Renin when released
    • Angiotensinogen is converted to Angiotensin I
    • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts Angtiotensin I to Angiotensin II in the lungs
    • Angiotensin II stimulates the release of Aldosterone
    • Aldosterone increases Na+ and H2O uptake increasing BP
  45. Collecting tubules merge into medullary rays to form
    Cortical collecting ducts
  46. Cortical collecting ducts continue into
    Pyramids where they merge to form large ducts
  47. Duct of Bellini
    • aka. Large collecting ducts
    • These open at the papilla into the minor calyx
  48. Principle cells
    • Found in the collecting tubule, cortical collecting duct, and medullary collecting duct
    • They respond to ADH and reabsorb water
  49. The Medullary collecting duct is made up of primarily what cells
    • Principle cells (respond to ADH and reabsorb water)
    • Few microvilli
    • Clear cytoplasm
  50. Intercalated cells are found where, with what function
    • Found in the collecting tubule and cortical collecting duct
    • They actively secrete H+ into the urine
  51. Osmotic pressure in the loop of Henle changes how
    The more distal from the cortex the higher the osmotic pressure
  52. Diabetes insipidus is caused by
    Damage to the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus which decreases the amount of ADH released resulting in a failure to retain water
  53. What is the effect of high water intake on ADH
    It inhibits ADH causing the body to excrete large volumes of water
  54. What is the path of arteries that the blood flows on the way to the glomerulus
    • Renal artery
    • Interlobar artery
    • Arcuate artery
    • Interlobular artery
    • Afferent arterioles
    • Glomerulus
    • Efferent arteriole
    • Peritubular capillary plexus (Vasa Recta)
  55. What are the capillaries surrounding the loop of Henle called
    Vasa recta
  56. Starting with the Efferent arterioles, how does the blood leave the kidney
    • Vasa recta (medulla)/Peritubular capillary plexus
    • Interlobular veins
    • Arcuate veins
    • Interlobar veins
    • Renal vein
  57. What portion of the kidney is covered in serosa
    Only the anterior surface
  58. Where is transitional epithelium found in the urinary system
    • Calyces
    • Ureter
    • Urinary bladder
    • Prostatic urethra
    • Female urethra
  59. What layers are found in the Calyces
    • Mucosa
    • Muscularis
    • Adventitia (or serosa)
  60. What layers are found in the Ureter
    • Mucosa (transitional epithelium)
    • - Lamina propria
    • Muscularis
    • - Inner longitudinal
    • - Outer circular
    • Outer fibrous coat
  61. What is the difference in the muscular layer in the Ureters and esophagus
    • Inner portion is the longitudinal
    • Outer circular
    • (esophagus is opposite)
  62. What muscle layers are in the Urinary bladder
    • 3 layers
    • Spiral
    • Inner longitudinal
    • Outer circular
  63. What path does urine travel from the bladder out in a male
    • Urinary bladder
    • Prostatic urethra
    • Membranous urethra
    • Penile urethra
  64. What cell type is found in the membranous urethra
    Stratified columnar/psuedostratified columnar
  65. The penile urethra is made up of what cell type
    Pseudostratified columnar/stratified columnar
  66. The female urethra is lined by
    • Transitional epithelium near bladder
    • Simple squamous non-karatinized
    • Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  67. What is found in the lamina propria of the female and male urethra
    Glands of Littre
  68. What muscles are found in the external sphincter of the female urethra
    • Inner longitudinal
    • Outer circular
Card Set
Renal Histo S2M2
Micro anatomy