1. what is the major fx of the urinary system
    • excretion
    • elimination
    • homeostatic regulaltion of vol & solute conc in blood plasma
  2. What is the removal of organic wastes from the body fluids
  3. What is the discharge of these wastes into the environment
  4. What makes up the urinary system
    • 2 kidneys
    • 2 ureters
    • UB
    • urethra
  5. what helps maintain homeostasis by regulating composistion,pH, vol of extracellular fluid
  6. What are some functions of the kidneys
    • excrete urine
    • activated VD
    • maintain BV & BP by secreting renin
    • secretes EPO to help control RBC production
  7. what is pre renal
    body fluid tissue
  8. what is renal
    kidney tissue
  9. what is post renal
    ureters bladder urethra
  10. what is the size of the kidneys
    • 12 cm length
    • 6cm wide
    • 3cm thick
  11. how do the kidneys lie
    retroperitoneally on either side of the vertebral column in depressions w/in up post wall of abd cavity
  12. what encloses the kidney
    tough fibrous capsule
  13. what holds the kidneys in place
    connective & adipose tissue
  14. what type of surface does the kidney have
    • convex lateral
    • concave medial
  15. what is the entrance to sinus
  16. the lateral convex & concave medial surface results in a medial depression leading a hollow what
    renal sinus
  17. what passes through the hilum
    • BV
    • nerves
    • lymphatice ves ureters
  18. a funnel shaped sac lies inside the renal sinus
    renal pelvis
  19. Where does the renal pelvis expand from
    sup aspect of the ureter
  20. The renal pelvis is subdivided into what
    maj & min calyces (tubes)
  21. What are the small elevations project into the renal sinus from the renal pelvis walls
    renal papillae
  22. The tiny openings on each papillae lead into what
    minor calyces
  23. the renal medulla is comprised of conical tissue termed what
    renal pyramids that is striated
  24. what encapsulates the medulla
    renal cortex & it pushes it btwn renal pyramids to form renal columns
  25. what is the cortex composed of
    nephrons that have a granular appearance
  26. The renal arteries arise from what
    abd aorta
  27. the renal arteries branch off inside kidneys into
    • interlobar a
    • arcuate a
    • interlobular a
  28. The final branches of the interlobular arteries that lead to the nephrons are what
    afferent arterioles
  29. The renal vein joins what
  30. what is the nephron
    functional unit of kidney
  31. the nephron consist of what
    • renal corpuscle
    • renal tubule
  32. A tangled cluster of blood caps that comproses a renal corpuslce
  33. the glomerulus is surrounded by a sac like structure termed what
    glomerular capsule
  34. where is the glomerulus located
    proximal end renal tubule where it becomes coiled into the PCT
  35. what are the 3 processes of the nephron
    • glomerular filtration
    • tubular reabsorption
    • tubular secretion
  36. The PCT dips toward the renal pelvis to form the descending limb of the nephron loop termed
    loop of henle
  37. The loop of henle curves toward the renal corpuscle to form what
    ascending limb of the nephron loop
  38. The loop of henle returns to the renal copuscle region coiled tightly to become what
  39. What type of arterioles do the glomerular caps arise from
  40. these are smaller in diameter than afferent arterioles
    efferent arterioles
  41. which type of arterioles have blood minus the filtered fluids
  42. efferent arterioles branch into complex interconnected capillary networks termed
    peritubular caps
  43. what comprises the juxtaglomerular apparatus or juxtaglomerular complex
    • juxtaglomerular cells=enlarged sm musc
    • macula densa
  44. what initiates urine formation
    glomerular filtration
  45. what filters the plasma
    glomerular caps
  46. how is most of the fluid reabsorbed into the bloodstream
    colloid osmotic pressure of plasma
  47. how much fluid is produced by glomerular filtration
    180 L which is 4times abount of total body water
  48. what are the two other processes that contribute to urine formation
    tubular reabsorption & secretion
  49. What moves substances from the tubular fluid into the blood w/in the peritubular capillary
    tubular reabsorption
  50. how does the kidney reclaim the correct amt of water, electrolytes, & glucose required by the body
    tubular reabsorption
  51. what moves substances from the blood int the peritubular cap into renal tubule
    tubular secretion
  52. what is the final product of tubular reabsorption & secretion
  53. explain renal blood flow
    it is 7 times the blood flow of the brain & consumes O2 at about 2 times the rate of the brain with a pressure gradient across the renal vasculature
  54. T/F Renal oxygen consumption is relative to renal na absorption
  55. how much of the cardiac output do the kidneys receive
  56. how much blood plasma is filtered while moving through the glom cap
  57. Average GFR rate in 24hrs
  58. When may the GFR increase
    bodyfluids are excessive
  59. when may the GFR decrease
    fluid conservation is required
  60. What is the amt of related water vol & amt of solutes kidneys must eliminate or retain to maintain homeostasis
    urine composition
  61. how much urine is water
  62. what also is in urine besides water
    • urea
    • uric acid
    • amino acids
    • electrolytes
  63. how much urine is produced daily
    .6 to 2.5 L daily or 50 to 60 ml Qhr
  64. when urine output falls below what could indicate kidney failure
    • less than 30ml Q hr
    • where is urine formed
    • nephrons
  65. Explain the flow of urine
    nephron-collecting ducts-calyces-renal pelvis-ureters-UB
  66. how long is the ureter
  67. how many layers does the ureter have
  68. how does the ureter descends
    post to parietal peritoneum to run parallel to the vert col to eventually join the UB inferiorly
  69. what passes urine to outside of the body
  70. what stores urine
  71. where does the UB lie
    pelvic cavity post to the symphysis pubis & inf to parietal peritoneum
  72. what happens to the many folds of the bladder when the bladder fills
    smooth out
  73. what is the trigone
    internal floor of the UB in the shape of a triangle w/opening at each of its 3 angles
  74. what are the main structures of the UB
    • body
    • neck
    • urethra
  75. what type of innervation is the sensory detect the stretch of the UB
    afferent innervation
  76. what is the motor PNS fibers of the UB
    efferent innervation
  77. What is the micturation reflex
    controlled by higher centers in the brain in response to increase in pressure, sustained pressure or basal tone of the bladder
  78. how many layers does the UB wall have
  79. What are the 4 layers of the UB wall
    • mucous coat
    • submucous coat
    • muscular coat
    • serous coat
  80. when does the UB cellular thickness change
    depends on how much urine it holds
  81. which coat comprising the detrusor muscle
    muscular coat
  82. what muscle surrounds the neck of the bladder to form the internal urethral sphincter
    detrusor muscle
  83. what is micturition
  84. Explain Micturition
    Detrusor musc contracts along w/adb wal & pelvic floor musc. Ext urethral sphincter relaxes & the micturition reflex center in the sP c sends PNS moto impulses to the detrusor muscle which causes it to contract
  85. how much urine can the UB hold b4 pain receptors are stimulated
  86. When does the urge to urinate occur
  87. external urethral sphincter is under what type of control
    conscious control
  88. what lines the urethra
    • mucous mem
    • thick layer sm musc
  89. the wall of the urethra has many mucous glands termed
    urethral glands that secretes mucus into urethral canal
  90. how long is urethra in females
    4cm long opening via ext urethral orifcie=urinary meatus
  91. explain the urethra in reference to males
    part of the urinary/repro sys that extends from the bladder to the tip of the penis
  92. what is the clinical relevance of the urethra
    • infection
    • bladder
    • catheterization
  93. what is the formation of calculi
    kidney stones
  94. Urinary retention in males may develop with aging b/c of what
    enlarge prostate gland
  95. what happens to the #functional nephrons & glomeruli with aging
  96. Male sex cells
  97. female sex cells
  98. the primary sex organs of males
    2 testes=gonads
  99. The accessory sex organs for males
    internal & ext reproductive organs
  100. size of testes
    • 5cm long
    • 3 cm dia
  101. location of testes
  102. testis divided into what
    250 lobules that contain 4 highly colied seminiferous tubules
  103. the structures of the male repro system include:
    • 2 epididymides
    • 2 ductus deferentia
    • 2 ejaculatory ducts
    • urethra
    • 2 seminal vesicles
    • prostate gland
    • 2 bulbourethral glands
  104. tighlty coiled tubes connected to ducts w/in testis
  105. ductus deferentia
    vasa deferentia
  106. A muscular tube that ends post to the UB uniting w/duct of a seminal vesicle
    ductus or vasa deferentia
  107. what attach to the ductus deferens near the base of the UB
    seminal vesicles
  108. What do the seminal vesicles secrete
    slighlty alkaline fluid that helps to regulate pH as sperm travel outside body
  109. why does the seminal vesicle secrete fluid
    aids in sperm movement with the secretions containing fructose for energy & protaglandins for contractions
  110. what surrounds the proximal portion of the urethra slightly inf to the UB
    prostage gland
  111. what does the prostate gland secrete
    milky fluid that neutralized acidic fluid containing sperm cells
  112. what does prostatic fluid enhance
    motilitiy of the sperm cells & helps neutralize the vagina's acidic serections
  113. what are cowper's glands
    bulbourethral glands
  114. what do the cowper's gland do
    secrete a mucus like fluid in response to sexual stimulation that lubricates the end of the penis to prepare for intercouse=semen
  115. the seminiferous tubules form ducts that join what
  116. A tube that coils on the outer surface of the testis & becomes the ductus deferens
  117. what forms sperm cells that line the seminiferous tubules
    spermatogenic cells
  118. what produce & secretes male sex hormones
    cells of leydig
  119. describe the sperm cell
    • flat head
    • cylinder shaped body
    • long tail
  120. where in the sperm is the 23 chromosomes located
    head has a nucleus & compacted chromatin
  121. how does the tail/flagellum move
    ATP via mitochondria that propells sperm cells through its containing fluid
  122. Explain spermatogonia
    migration among the sertoli cells that become spermatocytes (46) & spermatids (23) along with spermatazoa
  123. where does the production of spermatogenesis happen
    • sem tubules
    • ant pit stimulation
  124. What is the role of the epididymis in spermatogenesis
  125. What are the 3 steps of spermatogenesis
    • spermatogonia
    • production
    • maturation
  126. what is an important function of the scrotum
    protects & controls temp of the testes which is important for sex cell production
  127. What consists of a pouch of skin & subcutaneous tissue hanging from the lower abd region post to the penis
  128. the urethra passes through what
  129. how many columns of erectile tissue does the shaft contain
  130. how does the urethra extend through the penis
    extends through the corpus spongiosum & enlarges at its distal end to form the cone shaped glans
  131. what encloses the penis
    • layer of conn tissue
    • thin layer subcut tissue
    • skin
  132. explain the male sex act
    • glans penis
    • pudendal nerve
    • sacral plexus
    • sp cord
    • brain
    • drive
    • filling of sex organs:erection, lubricaiton, emission
  133. primary sex organs for females
    2 ovaries=gonads that produce female sex cells & sex hormones
  134. accessory sex organs for female
    internal & external repro organs
  135. female repro system includes
    • 2 uterine tube=fallopian tubes=oviducts
    • uterus
    • vagina
  136. where are the fallopian tubes open near
  137. how long are the fallopian tubes
    10cm long & open into uterine cavity
  138. size of ovaries
    3.5cm long by 2 cm wide by 1 cm thick
  139. where do ovaries lie
    shallow depressions in lat pelvic cavity wall
  140. before birth a female fetus develops small cell groups in the outer ovarian cortex that form what
    primoridal follicles that consist of primary oocyte surrounded by follicular cells
  141. explain the production of oocytes to eggs
    • primordial ova
    • granulosa cells
    • primordial follicle
    • primary oocyte
    • 2nd oocyte
    • ovum enters abd cavity
  142. where is the location of the uterus
    ant pelvic cavity sup to vagina
  143. what is the lower 3rd of the uterus called
  144. how many layers make up the uterine wall
  145. what are the 3 layers of the uterine wall
    • endometrium
    • myometrium
    • permetrium
  146. inner mucosal layer of the uterine wall
  147. thick muscular middle layer of uterine wall
  148. outer serosal layer covering the body of the uterus & part of the cervix
  149. explain the endometrium thickness in regards to the monthly cycle
    • proliferative phase=11 days
    • secretoryi phase=12 days
    • menstrual phase=5 days
  150. how long is the vagina
    9cm long
  151. where does the vagina extend from
    uterus distal to the outside body
  152. what partially covers the vaginal orifice
  153. The external accessory organs of the female repro include
    • labia majora
    • labia minora
    • clitoris
    • vestigular glands
    • these surround the openings of the urethra & vagina composing=vulva
  154. what encloses & protects other external repro organs
    labia majora
  155. where do the labia minora lie
    btwn labia majora & are flattened folds of connective tissue
  156. what projects from the ant end of the vulva btwn labia minor
  157. what encloses the vestibula into which the vagina opens post
    labia minora
  158. what lies on each side of the vaginal opening
    1 vestibular gland
  159. female response to pregnancy
    • wt gain
    • increase in BMR
    • nutrient storage
    • increased CO
    • increased BV
    • RR to facilitate ventilation increase
    • increased urine formation
  160. specialized to secrete milk following pregnancy
    mammary glands
  161. what are located in the subcut tissue of the ant thorax w/in breasts
    mammary glands
  162. what makes up the mammary glands
    15 to 20 lobes that contain alveolar glands & alveolar duct which leads to a lactiferous duct & a nipple
  163. what stimulates breast development at puberty for lactation
    estrogen via ductal system development
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