1. What are some landmarks in the RUQ
    • liver
    • gallbladder
  2. What are some landmarks in the LUQ
    • spleen
    • stomach
    • diaphragm
  3. What are some landmarks in the LLQ
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon
  4. What are some landmarks in the RLQ
    • ascending colon
    • appendix
  5. what are the 9 regions of the abdome
    • hypochondrium
    • epigastric
    • flank
    • umbilical
    • groin
    • pubic
  6. What are the 10 layers of the abdomen
    • skin
    • fat
    • scarpa's fascia
    • fat
    • ext oblique
    • int oblique
    • tran abd
    • tran fascia
    • peritoneal fat
    • peritoneum
  7. What is the double layer extension of peritoneum that descends distally over the stomach, duodenum & transverse colon
    Greater omentum
  8. What is considered to be the abd policeman & is the site of metastasis
    greater omentum
  9. what does the lesser omentum cover
    • stomach
    • duodenum
    • liver
  10. What is the double layer extension of the peritoneum that covers the stomach, duodenum & liver
    lesser omentum
  11. What is the double layer fold of peritoneum that connects the small intestine to abd wall posteriorly (retroperitoneum)
  12. What is the arterial blood supply for the mesentery
    • aorta
    • sup & inf mesenteric a
  13. Does the mesentery connect organs together
  14. What are the functions of the alimentary canal
    • GI tract
    • mout to anus
    • breaks down & absorbs nutrients
    • expels indigestibles
    • protects body from fluid loss
    • prevents toxic substances from entering body
    • under control of nervous & hormonal systems
  15. Where is the approximate location for the diaphragm
    • superor boundary of the abd cavity
    • inferior boundary of the thoracic cavity
  16. What are the 3 openings for the diaphragm
    • aorta=t12
    • esophagus=t10
    • IVC=t8
  17. What are the 4 muscles of mastication/chewing
    • temporalis
    • masseter
    • lat & med pterygoid
  18. What do incisors do
  19. what do molars do
  20. what is the pH of the oral cavity
  21. What is the purpose of chewing
    to increase the total surface area that digestive enzymes break down
  22. What is another name for swallowing & what are the 3 stages
    • deglutition
    • vol stage
    • pharyngeal stage
    • esophageal stage
  23. What stage is referring to when food is ready to swallow that is voluntarily squeezed post to pharynx with the tongue pressure upward/backward against palate
    voluntary stage
  24. When do the swallowing stages become automatic
    after the voluntary stage
  25. Explain what happens during the pharyngeal stage of swallowing
    the soft palate will close with the pharyngeal muscles pulling together. The vocal chords & epiglottis will close with the larynx moving upward & the upper esophagus relaxes. Finally, the pharynx muscles contract up/down to initiate peristalsis
  26. Where is the swallowing center located
    • medulla
    • lower pons
  27. What CN's are involved with the sensory center
    • 5
    • 9
  28. What is the area of the swallowing receptor area that is found all over the pharynx with a great amount of sensitivity on tonsillar pillars
    sensory center
  29. What interrupts respiration to allow swallowing to proceed & is responsible for the gag reflex if not swallowed
    swallowing center
  30. how long is the esophagus
    • 25cm lenght
    • 2cm dia
  31. where does the esophagus go
    thoracic & abdominal
  32. What does the esophagus emerge through
    diaphragm at the vagus nerve at the level of t10
  33. what type of hernia is associated with the esophagus
  34. What are the stages involved with the esophageal stage
    • primary peristalis=initiates wave
    • 2nd peristalsis=myenteric nerve plexus
    • relaxation of stomach=precedes peristalsis
  35. The pharynx and upper 1/3 esophagus are voluntary & made up of what type of muscle
  36. The lower 2/3 esophagus is involuntary & made up of what type of muscle
  37. T/F If the vagus nerve is cut, peristalis can't continue
    F=it can continue
  38. What are the functions of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
    • prevents acid reflux
    • increased abd pressure=caves lower portion of esophagus inward
  39. Where is the LES located
    esophageal valve 3cm above cardia
  40. Is the LES normally tonically constricted
  41. What is meant by the term achalasia
    LES doesn't relax
  42. What is the GI tract/wall consist of
    • 4 layer hollow tube
    • hollow area=lumen
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscularis
    • serosa
  43. What is the innermost layer of the gi tract that consists of epithelial lining, lamina propria & muscularis musosae
  44. what does the lamina propria consist of
    • conn tissue
    • lymphatics
    • BL vessels
  45. What is similiar to the mucosa but has denser conn tissue & nerves
  46. This layer of the gi tract wall has 2 layers smooth muscle, constricts gi tract in dia & length; has a circular inner most & longitudinal outer most
  47. Which layer of the gi wall is innervated by the myenteric nerve plexus interspeersed throughout
  48. This layer of the gi wall is a thin layer conn tissue that has blood vessels, lymphatics, fat, squamous epithelial cells
  49. The GI wall cell membrane has what
    • smooth muscle
    • epithelial cells=enterocytes
    • enterocyte cell membrane
  50. What makes up the enterocyte cell membrane
    • luminal (apical) vs basolateral
    • luminal mem faces hollow lumen surface
    • basolat mem faces lamina propria & BL supply
  51. What are the digestive factors excreted across luminal membrane
    • foodstuffs absorbed via fac diffusion or AT
    • occurs across luminal then basolat mem
    • moves into blood stream for tissue distribution
  52. What does depolarization do to the gi wall cell membrane
  53. What are the factors that depolarize cell membrane
    • muscle stretching
    • ACh stimulation
    • PNS release of ACh
    • Specific gi hormone stimulation
  54. The PNS release of ACh will promote what in the gi wall CM
    • motility
    • secretion
    • sphincter relaxation
  55. what does hyperpolarization do to the gi wall CM
  56. What are the factors that hyperpolarize CM
    • NE & E stimulation
    • stimulation of SNS
    • anticholinergic drugs
  57. The SNS stimulation has what effects on the gi wall CM
    • inhibits motility
    • secretions
    • constricts sphincters
  58. What are the two types of smooth muscle contractions in the GI
    • rhythmic
    • tonic
  59. This type of smooth musc contraction is the most common in GI
  60. This type of sm musc contr is continous & caused by partial depolarization
  61. The continous tonic contraction of the GI has what effects
    • increase/decrease in intensity
    • lasts several min or hrs
  62. What type of sm musc contr is determined by frequency of slow waves of smooth musc mem pot
  63. how many rhythmic contractions occur in each min
  64. Slow waves are thought to come from what
    Na/K pump that don't normally cause contraction
  65. how are smooth musc contraction happen
    spikes in potential that allow ca ions to enter muscle fibers
  66. How does gi smooth musc fiber potential differ from that of nerve fiber potential
    • NF=rapid entry of na ions
    • GI=lrg#ca ions, small na ions via ca/na ch (slow) & ca=contraction
  67. What are the 2 intramural plexus
    • myenteric=outer
    • subucosal=inner
  68. What is the intramural plexus
    • neural control of GI fx
    • ENS
    • located in gut wall
    • 2 plexuses
  69. What is another name for the auerbach's plexus
  70. Which plexus is btwn circular & longitudinal musc layers of muscularis
  71. Which plexus controls smooth muscle coordinated contraction & relaxation of gi tract (peristalsis)
  72. What is the purpose of peristalsis
    • maintains tone
    • increases intensity of contraction
    • increses rate of rhythm
    • increases velocity of vaves of conduction
  73. Which plexus secretes vasocative polypeptides
  74. What is meissner's plexus
    submucosal plexus
  75. This plexus is btwn muscularis & submucosa that is involved with local intestinal secretion, absorption & contraction of submucosal smooth muscle
  76. What is a excitatory NT
  77. What is an inhibitory NT
    NE & E
  78. What are some mixed NT's
    • ATP
    • serotonin
    • cholycytokinin
    • Sub P
    • VIP
    • somatostatin
    • leu-enkephalin
    • metenkephalin
    • bombesin
  79. What is the anutonomic control of the GI tract
    • connects SP/BS to MP & Sub P via vagus & peliv nerves
    • PNS=pregang-release Ach
    • SNS=postgangl
  80. What are the 2 division of the PNS innervation
    • cranial
    • sacral
  81. The cranial division is supported by the vagus nerve that innervates
    upper esophagus to transverse colon
  82. The sacral divisoin is supported by pelvic nervies that inntervates
    splenich flexure of colon to internal anal sphincter
  83. where does the sympathetic chain orginate for sympathetic innervation
    SP btwn T5-L2 & lies laterally
  84. What are the two outlying ganglia for the sympathetic innervation
    • celiac
    • mesenteric
  85. What do the sympathtic nerve endings secrete
    NE that have a direct effect to inhibit smooth muscle
  86. T/F Indirect effect is through the ENS
  87. The afferent sensory nerve fibers have what types of signals transmitted
  88. what are the afferent stimulants
    • irritation of gut sm musc
    • excessive distension of gut
    • presence of specific chemical substances
  89. where do afferent sensory nerve fibers terminate
  90. Afferent sensory nerve fibers are cell bodies in ENS but axons as they extend through ANS to the what 2 prevertebral ganglia
    • mesenteric
    • hypogastric
  91. What are the other cell bodies in dorsal SP Cord or cranial ganglia
    vagus nerve as 80% is afferent
  92. What are the 3 types of GI reflexes that are essential for gut control
    • gastrocolonic
    • enterogastric
    • colonoileal
  93. The Gi reflexes are located where
    • ENS or gut wall
    • prevertebral ganglia
    • Sp cord/BS
  94. What does gastrin do
    promotes stomach emptying
  95. Explain cholecystokinin
    T-cell secretion in the duodenum, jejunum in response to fats, fatty acids, monoglyceride breakdown that increases contractility & decreases motility
  96. Explain Secretin
    S-cell secretion in the duodenum in response to emptying of acidic gastric juices with a mild inhibitory effect
  97. Explain GIP
    in response to fatty & amino acids, carbos that decreases motility & slows gastric emptying
  98. Peristalis is always what to what
    oral to anal
  99. what is the myenteric reflex
    peristaltic reflex
  100. what is the law of the gut
    • peristalsis always oral to anal
    • myenteric reflex=peristaltic reflex
    • receptive relaxation
  101. All blood through the gut, spleen, pancrease flows into the liver via what vein
    portal vein
  102. What is in the liver
    • liver sinusoids
    • recticuloendothelial cells line sinusoids
    • removes toxins
    • hepatic cells
    • fats not absorbed portal circulation
  103. what are the principal paranchymal cells of liver
    hepatic cells
  104. how are fats absorbed if not through portal circulation
    intestinal lymphatics then into circulating blood supply
  105. which artery supplies the stomach
  106. which artery supplies the walls of intestines
    mesenteric (arching arterial system)
  107. which arteries circle the gut
  108. Which arteries penetrate intestinal wall & spread via looping capillaries along musc bundles into intestinal villi into submucosal vessels
    smaller arteries
  109. where are the peptide hormones released from
    gut mucosa
  110. What are the vasodilators
    • CCK
    • VIP
    • gastrin
    • secretin
    • kinins
  111. What secretes kinins
    gut wall
  112. What increases blood flow & secretions to the gut
    PNS innervation
  113. What does sympathetic do
  114. Cell death potential in what
  115. This type of shock is of all body's vital tissues at risk for cell death due to lack of blood flow to the brain or heart
    circulatory shock
  116. Splanchinic blood flow is decreased for many hrs via sympathetic stimulation for what type of shock
    circulatory shock
  117. Explain hemorrhagic shock
    Under control of sympathetic stimulation that has a strong vasoconstriction of intestinal mesenteric veins that decreases vol of veins, displaces lrg amts blood to other parts for circulation with 200 to 400ml extra blood sustain gen circulation
  118. What are the functions of the stomach
    • mixes food w/secretions
    • can hold up to 2L
    • slows emptying of chyme at optimal rate for digestion
    • vagovagal reflex
    • sm amt fat absorption
  119. what is the pH of the stomach
  120. What are some symptoms of stomach cancer
    • postprandial, epigastric pain
    • early saitiety
    • anemia
    • obstruction
  121. where is stomach cancer most prevelent
    japan with a 5-20% survival rate for about 5 to 8mo's
  122. this sphincter is muscular that prevents passage of food & emptying is triggered by gastrin or increase food volume
    pyloric sphincter
  123. how long is the small intestine
    6 to 7 meters
  124. What are the areas of the sm intestine
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  125. where is the sm I
    • retroperitoneal
    • plicae circularis
  126. Explain the small intestine mesentery
    begins at the ligament of treitz ending at the ileocecal junction that prevents twisting of the gut
  127. Explain the duodenum
    it is 25 cm in length with a C shaped: ampulla/superior, descending, inferior, ascending
  128. How does the duodenum inhibit stomach emptying
    throught the enterogastric reflex located in the prevertebral ganglia controlled by vagus to brain stem
  129. What inhibits pyloric pump & increases tone of pyloric sphincter
  130. what is the hormonal feedback for the duodenum
    • inhibits gastric emptying
    • hormone production in excess quantities of fat or acidic chyme
    • secretin, CCK, GIP
    • Insulin release
  131. where is the jejunum
    mostly LUQ
  132. Explain the jejunum
    large dia with a thicker wall that is more vascular with stria that lakcs peyer's patches
  133. where is the ileum
    mostly RLQ
  134. Explain the Ileum
    smaller diamter with a thinner wall w/mesenteric fat. The terminal ileum connects to cecum with it ending at the ileocecal valve
  135. This is a valve that prevents reflux & is a flap/orifice into colon
    ileocecal valve
  136. Which valve is an appendix attachement point
    ileocecal valve just follow teniae colo to end point
  137. What is meckles diverticulum
    • w/in 40 cm of ileocecal valve
    • intussusception/obstruction
    • inflammation/ulceration/hemorrhage
  138. what type of ulcer can erode into arteries
  139. what type of ulcer can erode into peritoneal cavity
  140. Helicobacter pylori can cause what
  141. what can inhibit gastric cells in ulcers
  142. how can ulcers have a decreased incidence
    H2 blocker
  143. what are the 4 types of contractions
    • mixing
    • propulsive movements
    • peristaltic rush
    • villi contractions
  144. explain mixing contractions
    • they are different in various areas of gi tract
    • local intermittent constrictive contractions
    • chop shear contents to mix
    • occurs 5-30sec every few cm
  145. What is a propulsive contractions
  146. Explain propulsive contractions
    they are propulsive mvmts that is stimulated with gut distenstion that causes chyme to move analward & is very slow & weak (1cm/min) takes 3-5hrs to pass from pyloris to ileocecal valve
  147. This is a powerful rapid peristaltic contraction that travels long distances w/in minutes in small I
    peristaltic rush
  148. what sweeps contents into colon quickly
    peristaltic rush
  149. what are some of the contents that the peristaltic rush sweeps into colon very quickly
    • infectious diarrhea
    • SMI irritation
    • excessive distention of chyme
  150. what are multiple mucosal folds that increases surface area that contacts chyme
  151. What is responsible for the rate of absorption increasing in response to chyme in SMI
  152. what does chyme contact do to the villi
    it milks them
  153. what happens in regards to the lymph flow when the villi fibers shorten-lengthen-shorten
    it allows it to flow freely to the central lacteals to lymphatic sys
  154. explain the large intestine or colon
    • 1.5 meters
    • absorbs fluids/salts
    • tenia coli
    • haustra
    • sluggish mvmt
    • epiploic appendages
    • cecum 7 to 9 com dia
  155. What are the parts of the lrg intestine or colon
    • cecum
    • asc colon
    • right colic flexure
    • transverse colon
    • splenic flexure
    • desc colon
    • sigmoid colon
    • rectum
  156. where does the descending colon end
    teniae coli & this is where the sigmoid colon begins
  157. What are the movements of the colon
    • mixing
    • propulsion
    • reflexes
  158. what are the reflexes associated with the colon
    • gastrocolic
    • duodenocolic
    • defecation
    • peritonealintestinal
    • renointestinal
  159. Explain the sigmoid colon
    intraperitoneal S-shaped loop, 40 cm in length, rectosigmoid junction & diverticula
  160. how far is the rectosigmoid junction from the anus
    15 cm
  161. what is associated with divertcula
    • diverticulosis
    • divertculitis
    • perforation
  162. Mucosa & submucosa herniations through or btwn fibers of colonic muscularis propria
  163. what is the presence of multiple diverticula
  164. What is inflammation of the diverticula
  165. what is weakness of bowel wall caused by bleeding, ulceration or necrosis
  166. what are some congential abnormalities of the colon
    • shortening
    • redundant colon
  167. what can redundant colon cause
    • volvulus around the SMA
    • obstruction
    • ischemic bowel
    • mesenteric ischemia
  168. what is the primary fx of the secretory glands in the gi tract
    • secretes digestive enzymes
    • secretes mucous
  169. what are the 4 types of glands in the gi tract
    • mucous glands
    • crypts of lieberkuhn
    • tubular glands
    • complex glands
  170. another name for mucous glands
    goblet cells
  171. explain mucous glands
    single cell that extrude mucous on epi cells that protects, lubricates & responds to food irritation
  172. This type of gland is in the SMI invaginations of epi into submucosa with deep pits w/specialized secretory glands
    crypts of lieberkuhn
  173. this type of gland is in the stomach & upper duodenum that secretes acids & enzymes for breakdown, digestion
    deep tubular glands
  174. this type of gland provides secretions of digestion or emulsification of food in salivary glands, pancrease & liver
    complex glands
  175. This type of glands are special acinar cells that feed into duct system that empty enzymes into gi tract
    salivary glands & pancreas
  176. how does the local epithelial stimulation activate ENS
    • tactile stimulation
    • chemical irritation
    • distenstion of gut wall
    • All of this will result in an increase secretion of goblet & deep tubular glands
  177. what makes up mucous
    • h20
    • electrolytes
    • glycoproteins
  178. what is the fx of mucous
    adheres to food & spreads as a film that coats the gut wall preventing direct contact of food to mucosa. It also causes fecal matter to adhere together, resistant to digestive enzymes & neutralizes acids
  179. what are the salivary glands
    • parotid
    • submandibular
    • sublingual
    • buccal
  180. how much saliva is secreted daily
    800ml to 1.5L
  181. What are the two types of protein secretions in saliva
    • serous=ptyalin (a=amylase)
    • mucous=mucin
  182. what is the fx of ptyalin/a-amylase
    digests starches with a pH 6-7
  183. what is the fx of mucous/mucin
    • protection
    • lubricates
  184. What are the major fx's of saliva
    • oral hygiene
    • washes away pathogenic bacteria/food particles
    • proteolytic enzymes
    • protein antibodies
  185. what are proteolytic enzymes
    they are lysozymes that attack bacteria & digest food particles
  186. What are protein antibodies
    destroys oral bacteria
  187. where are the pyloric glands located & what do they do
    • located in the distal 20% of stomach on surfaces of antrum
    • their job is secretion of mucous, pepsinogen & gastrin
  188. what are the glands that comprise 80% of stomach & surfaces of body and fundus
    oxyntic (gastric) glands
  189. What are the 3 cell types that make up the gastric/oxyntic glands
    • mucous neck cells
    • peptic chief cells
    • parietal cells
  190. what makes up the mucous neck cells
    • mucous
    • pepsinogen
  191. what makes up the peptic chief cells
  192. what makes up the parietal cells
    HCl & intrinsic factor
  193. what are the parts of the pancreas
    • head
    • uncunate process
    • body
    • tail pancreatic duct
  194. what is the arterial blood supply to the pancreas
    • celiac trunk
    • common hepatic artery
    • pancreaticoduodenal a
  195. what are the digestive enzymes of the pancrease
    • pancreatic acini
    • pancreatic duct/hepatic duct
    • Duodenum
  196. What does the pancreatic acini secrete
    • na
    • hco3 solution
  197. what does the pancreatic duct/hepatic duct secrete
    • na
    • hco3 solution combined with enzymes
  198. What are the digestive enzymes of the duodenum
    • ampulla of vater
    • sphincter of oddi
  199. Pancreatic juice secreted abundantly in response to chyme where
    upper intestine
  200. how are the characteristics of juices determined in the pancrease
    types of food in chyme
  201. T/F Insulin is not secreted by same pancreatic tissue that secretes intestinal pancreatic juices
  202. How is insulin secreted into the blood stream
    islets of langerhans that occurs in islet patches througout pancreas
  203. what do the pancreatic secretions secrete
    proteolytic enzymes that breakdown via hyrolysis
  204. pancreatic secretions contains enzymes for digestion of what
    • fats
    • carbs
    • proteins
  205. Pancreatic secretions contains large quantities of hco3 ions that do what
    neutralize acidic chyme
  206. The right & left lobes of the liver are divided by what
    • GB fossa
    • IVC porta hepatis
  207. what drains the liver lobes
    R/L hepatic ducts
  208. what are the ducts of the liver
    • common hepatic duct
    • common cystic duct
    • common bile duct
    • pancreatic duct
  209. how is fat digestion and absorption occur in the liver
    bile acids that emulsifies lrg fat particles that aids in absorption of digested fat end products
  210. what are some basic fx of the liver
    • fat digestion/absorption
    • stores glycogen
    • wast product excretion
    • Bile secretion
  211. what are the waste products excreted by the liver
    • bilirubin
    • excess cholesterol
  212. how much bile is secreted by the liver each day
  213. what does bile contain
    • bile salts
    • bilirubin
    • cholesterol
    • lecithin
    • electrolytes
  214. what secretes bile specifically
  215. what are the principal metabolic fx cells of liver
  216. What is the flow of bile
    bile-canaliculi-terminal bile ducts-common hepatic duct & common cystic duct-common bile duct-gallbladder-duodenum
  217. what is the 2nd portion of bile secretion
    watery solution of Na & hco3 ions
  218. what is the hormone stimulus for the 2nd portion of bile secretion in response to flowing bile in ducts
  219. what types of cells secrete the 2nd portion of bile secretion
    epithelial cells lining ducts
  220. how much of an increase in total quantity of bile is increased by adding bicarbonate to further neutralize pancreatic juices
  221. what is the main fx of the gallbladder
    bile storage
  222. how much bile can the gallbladder store
    30-60ml which is up to 12hrs of secreted bile
  223. what is continually absorbed in the gallbladder
    • water
    • sodium
    • cl
  224. what does the gallbladder do to the bile
    concentrates it
  225. when does the gallbladder empty
    when food digestion occurs in upper gi tract & especially when fatty foods enter duodenum typically 30 min after a meal ingested
  226. what is the main actions of bile salts
    • emulsifies fat
    • absorption of fatty acids
  227. Explain the process that bile salts on emulsifing fat
    it takes a detergent action on fat particles and allows fat globules to be broken down in intestinal tract
  228. Absorption of fatty acids in bile salts action
    • formation of micelles w/lipids
    • soluble in chyme due to changes in bile salts
    • move lipids into mucosa for absorption
  229. where do gallstones come from
    they come from too much absorption of water from bile, bile acids from bile, too much cholesterol in bile & inflammation of epithelium
  230. this is a type of gland that is compound mucous glands that is in the proximal duodenum btwn the pylorus & ampulla of vater
    brunner's glands
  231. What secretes lrg amts of alkaline mucous
    • tactile or irritation of mucosa
    • vagal stimulation
    • GI hormone secretin
  232. What are the 2 types of epithelium in the SMI
    • goblet cells that secretes mucous
    • enterocytes that secretes water & electrolytes & reabsorbs water, electrolytes, digestive end products
  233. where do the crypts of lieberkuhn lie
    pits in mucosa btwn villi
  234. What is the alkaline secretions pH in the SMI
  235. Secretions of SMI are rapidly absorbed by
  236. What happens during the circulation of fluid from crypts to villi
    a watery vehicle is created for absorption of substances due to contact of chyme on villi
  237. Secretions of the lrg intestine is associated with what
    • copious mucous & moderate hco3
    • mucosa similar to SMI
  238. Explain copious mucous & moderate hco3
    rate of secretion via direct stimulaltion of mucous cells along with the pelvic nerves of the PNS
  239. how is the mucosa of the large instestine similar to the SMI
    • crypts of leiberkuhn but no villi
    • epi cells contain few enzymes
    • mainly contains mucous for protection & feces formation
  240. what is the pH of the mucous in the lrg I
  241. What protects the lrg I wall from bacteria activity of fecal matter
  242. What provides a barrier to keep acids in fecal matter from attacking intestinal wall
  243. What is 1.5 L of chyme that passes through ileocecal valve into colon
  244. where is most of the water absorbed in the colon
    proximal 1/2 where almost all ions absorbed with minimal loss of small na, cl in feces
  245. Where is most of the storage of feces
    distal 1/2 colon
  246. explain the contents of feces
    • 3/4 water, 1/4 solid
    • 30% dead bacteria
    • 10-20% fat
    • 10-20% inorganic matter
    • 2-3% protein
    • 30% roughage
    • color/odor
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