1. RBC casts is a sign of
  2. WBC casts in the urine, is a sign of...
    interstitial kidney disease

    Why? Look it up!
  3. Muddy brown casts...sign of...
    acute tubular necrosis
  4. Rice water diarrhea. Probably caused by which bacteria?
    Vibrio cholerae

    GNB, non-lactose fermenting, oxidase (+)

    Tx Tetracycline
  5. Marker for Non-Seminomatous Tumors
    Increased levels of AFP and Beta HCG
  6. Normal protein levels in the urine:
  7. Mention 2 Oxidase (+) GNB:
    • V. cholerae
    • C. jejuni
  8. What not to do in suspected acute prostatitis?
    rectal exam. risk of sepsis by rupture!
  9. Indication for early screening for prostate cancer...
    african american
  10. Polycystic Kidney Disease: Indicated confirmatory test...
    Ultrasound. If inconclusive, the do CT.

    S/S for PKD: Increased BP and micro-hematuria.

    Recuerda, en el ultrasonido, se ven los quistes claritos!
  11. Currant jelly stool

    Intussusception is the most common cause of small bowel obstruction in children between the ages of 6 months and 4 years.

    • Clinical findings of crampy,
    • intermittent abdominal pain, vomiting, palpable abdominal mass, and “currant jelly” stools are classic.

    • Patients with these characteristic symptoms probably do not require ultrasound diagnosis before attempted enema reduction. Many of these clinical features are present in young children with abdominal pain for other reasons, and some children with
    • intussusception do not exhibit all the classic features. In such children, sonography can help confirm or exclude intussusception.

    Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of intussusception with ultrasound is virtually 100%
  12. Bacterial Acute Pyelonephritis on CT, looks like
    striated nephrogram

    (BAP: associated with urosepsis)
  13. Bacterial infection of the renal parenchyma, is called:
    Bacterial Acute Pyelonephritis
  14. S/S of Chronic Pyelonephritis
    • fever
    • urinary urgency and freq
    • flank pain
  15. Chronic pyelonephritis on CT
    • renal cortical scarring
    • caliectasis (dilated calices)
  16. Most common organism for Chronic Pyelonephritis
  17. What happens to the kidney's size in Chronic Pyelonephritis?
    • Bad kidney: atrophies
    • Good kidney: compensatory hypertrophy (may occur)
  18. Chronic Pyelonephitis is most common in what population?
  19. ________ is the most common of urothelial tumors; the bladder is the most common site involved
    TCC (Transitional Cell Carcinoma)
  20. What is the most common fungus to involve the renal collecting system?
  21. TCC (Transitional Cell Carcinoma), is assocaited with what kind of exposure?
    carcinogens: aromatic amines, dye, smoking, rubber, cylophosphamide
  22. TCC (of bladder), significant findings:
    • gross hematuria
    • irregular bladder filling defect

    (on urogram)
  23. Prostatits, is confirmed by CT
  24. Inability to retract the foreskin over the glans penis in an uncircumcised male

    • Phimosis can be the result of recurrent infections or irritation, advanced age, diabetes, and poor hygiene. Patients can experience painful erections, recurrent balanitis, and voiding difficulties. Treatment can be with topical steroids followed by gradual retraction of the foreskin or circumcision.
  25. Entrapment of the foreskin behind the glans penis in an uncircumcised male.
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