is the scientific study of the effects of social and cognitive processed on the way individuals perceive, influence, and relate to others
The ways in which other people influence people's understanding of the world and guide their actions.
The ways in which people's memories, perceptions, thoughts, emotions, and motives influence their understanding of the world and guide their actions.
Construction of reality
The axiom that each person's view of reality is a construction, shaped both by cognitive processes (the ways our minds work) and by social processes (influence from others either actually present of imagined).
Pervasiveness of social influence.
The axiom that other people influence all of an individual's thoughts, feelings, and behavior, whether those others are physically present or not.
Striving for mastery.
The motivational principle that people seek to understand and predict events in the social world in order to obtain rewards.
the motivational principle that people seek support, liking, and acceptance from the people and groups they care about and value.
Valuing me and mine.
The motivational principle that people desire to see themselves, and other people and groups connected to themselves, in a positive light.
The processing principle that individuals' and groups' views of the world are slow to change and prone to perpetuate themselves.
The processing principle that the information that is most readily available generally has the most impact on thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
Superficiality versus depth.
The processing principle that people ordinarily put little effort into dealing with information, but at times are motivated to consider information in more depth.
What is the difference between the everyday approach and the social psychological approach to understanding and predicting people's thoughts, feelings, and action?
The answer is found in methods, not goals. Both share many goals, but their methods for achieving those goals differ greatly. Common-sense reach conclusions about social behavior based on their own or others' exp. As scientists, SP study social behavior systematically.
Identify two points about the connection between social processes and cognitive processes.
- 1. By considering the group in the individual, SP examine how prople are affected by their knowledge of what is expected of them, that is, by their knowledge about the beliefs, attituds, and actions that are considered appropraite for members of their group.
- 2. by studying the individual in a group, researchers gain insights into how people are affected by others who are physically present, whether they offer friendly hugs or scornful glares, provide trustworthy info or try to deceive, lead by example or wait for someone to follow.
In what way does the focus of SP distinguish it from other social sciences?
SP seeks to understand the social behavior of individuals. The SP perspective invites us not only to understand but also to act on that understanding.
What divelopment was a precursor to the development of SP?
the development of SP had to await the emergence of its parent discipline, the science of psychology.
In terms of the causes of behaviors, how did SP split from GP?
- SP distinctive in its conviction that understanding and measuring people's pereptions, beliefs, and feelings essential to understanding their overt behavior..
- SP however resisted the behaviorist view that thoughts and feelings had no place in scientific explanations.
- SP accepted the behaviorists' argument that the ultimat goal of science is to explain behavior, but their studies showed that behavior could not be explained without taking into account people's thoughts and feelings.
Identify three ways in which the rise of Nazism affected the development of Sp?
- 1. A number of psychologist fled their homelans to continue careers in North America. a major growth in SP was concentrated in NA for the next few decades.
- 2. People asked questions about the roots of prejudice. How could prople feel and act on such murderous hatred for Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, and members of other groups.?
- 3. Drew SP into the search for solutions to immediate practical problems.
Identify and explain two trends that emerged during SP period of growth and integration.
- 1. integration of Cognitive and Social Processes.
- 2. Integration of basic science and social problems.
name 2 fundamental axioms of SP
- 1. Construction of Reality.
- 2. Pervasiveness of social influence
name 3 Motivational principles of SP
- as they construct reality and influence and are influenced by others, prople have 3 basic motives:
- 1. Strive for Mastery
- 2. Seek connectedness
- 3. Value themselves and others connedted to them
Name 3 processing principles of SP?
- 1. Conservatism: Established views are slow to change.
- 2. Accessibility: Accessible info has the most impact.
- 3. Superficiality versus Depth: People can process superficially or in depth.
Can the axioms and principles of SP account for desirable as well as undersirable forms of human behavior?
in combination, these 8 principles account for all types of social behavior, including thoughts and actions that are useful and valuable as well as those that are misleading and destructive.