Geol225 (Test2)

  1. What is metamorphism?
    to change from one form to another
  2. What is metamorphic rock?
    any rock that has undergone changes in texture, mineralogical, or chemical composition in the solid state
  3. Why do we study metamorphic rocks?
    • -exposed metamorphic rocks make up large parts of continents
    • -certain minerals in metamorphic rocks give clues about the conditions existing when they are formed
    • -used widely as building materials and manufacturing
  4. Conditions of metamorphism:
    • solid state- rocks does not melt
    • isochemical-chemistry does not change
  5. Composition of metamorphic rock determined by
    composition of parent rock
  6. Parent rocks are changed in mineralogy or physical texture by:
    • -heat and pressure
    • -tectonic forces
    • -fluid activity
  7. What are the agents of metamorphism?
    • 1. Temperature
    • 2. Pressure
    • 3. Fluid gases
    • 4. Time
  8. Temperature: why? how?
    • Why?
    • -increases rate of chemical reactions
    • -minerals are stable over temperature range
    • *conditions of metamorphism can be reconstructed

    • How?
    • -increasing temperature with depth
    • -radioactive decay
    • -deformation
    • -migrating magmas
  9. Pressure: Why? How?
    • Why?
    • -mineral grains are more closely packed
    • -recrystallization may occur, producing smaller and denser minerals

    • How?
    • -confining pressure: equally applied on all surfaces
    • -lithostatic pressure results from the weight of overlying rocks
  10. Fluids and Gases
    increase metamorphic reactions
  11. How are metamorphic rocks classified?
    • -Foliated: Identified by grain size, separation of light and
    • dark minerals, and finally partial melting. Comes down
    • to increasing temperature and pressure-Slate, Phyllite, Gneiss, Migmatite
    • -Non-foliated: Identify by mineral content or original (parent) rock
    • Quartzite, Marble
    • Igneous rock metamorphism:
    • Gabbro, Basalt, Granite and Diorite
  12. What are the types of metamorphism?
    • 1. Contact-takes place when a body of magma alters the surrounding country rock
    • 2. Regional-occurs over a large area and is usually caused by tremendous temperatures, pressures and deformations within the deeper portions of the crust.
  13. Index Minerals- what are they and can we use them?
    Index minerals form under specific conditions of temperature and pressure
    Geologists use index minerals to recognize low, intermediate, and high grade metapmorhic zones
  14. What are hydrothermal processes?
    • -rocks altered by hot water
    • -divergent plate boundaries
    • *water penetrates through cracks
    • *converts mafic minerals into hyrdrous (water bearing) minerals
Card Set
Geol225 (Test2)
Metamorphic Rocks