How many plates in Middle America?
Warm coastal lowlands, plantation agriculture
Temperate, greatest poplation concentrations. Center of the Aztec empire
Cold, agriculturally marginal
Impact of Iberian Colonialism
Spain and Portugal, Massive population decline- "Great Dying"
New settlement pattern of plaza towns to control Indian population
Promote the goals fo colonialism. God, gold, glory.
The Caribbean Islanda and the Caribbean coast are the Rimland. Everything else is Mainland.
M- Templada. R- caliente
M- Indo-European (mestizo). R- Afro- European
M- hacienda. R-Capitalist Plantations
The "supre-state" based upon physical diversity and population base.
The most primate region and city. It stretches from Veracurz to Guadalajara.
Problems of agglomeration
Housing- slums or squatter settlements. Water shortages. Atmospheric pollution.
The Border Cities
Foreign-owned "maquiladora" assembly plants.
Percieved Problems with Border Cities
- "Colonia" of job migrants are disease prone.
- Extensive industrial pollution
- Widespread use of young female labor challenges traditional family structure
- 1994 NAFTA balance of trade problems with the U.S.
- Traditional mining economy centered on Monterrey.
- Modern natural gas fuels growth of diversified heavy industrial base.
- Extensive development of large scale grain farms.
The Gulf Coast
- Center of national petrochemical industry based on offshore oil and gas deposits.
- Frontier of humid ranchlands and fruit agriculture
- NAFTA is implemented, open boarders, now we can export corn more.
- Isolated and mountainoous region of poor Mayan Indian groups, especially Chiapas
- Government neglect/globalization promotes regional "Zapatista" guerilla movement in the mid 1990s
- Government extracts natural resources with little wealth reutrned to people.
- Government rescinds communally- owned "ejidos" lands established in 1917 Revolution
- Contesting NAFTA potential for introduction of genetically modified corn.
Significance of the Treaty of Tordesillas
To separate the earth. Half to the Spanish and half to the Portuguese.
Characteristics of Aztecs
- Most urbanized.
- Produce transported from throughout southern Mexico and northern Central America. Very sacrificial.
Characteristics of Maya
- Emerged in the highlands of Guatemala.
- Achieved levels of math and writing equal or superior to other present day Old World civilizations.
Characteristics of Inca
- High mountain valleys of southern Peru and Bolivia.
- They excelled at imposition of authoritarian social and political control and the construction of highways and bridges.
What is the encomienda system i terms of land and labor?
Control over large pieces of land and became a mechanism by which Europeans and their descendants gained and maintained control over land and Indian vilages.
- practiced by small
- European upper class;
- emphasizes piety, faith, and participation;
- Women are attend mass regularly and heavy emphasis on devotional societies, charities, and social clubs.
- Includes the majority of the rural peasant population as well as almost all the poor;
- no financial contributions are made;
- priests may be viewed negatively;
- men are unlikely to entire the church more than twice in their lifetime.
- a mixture of European Catholicism and non-Catholic beliefs and practices;
- centered in the ancient hoy places of mountains and valleys.
a large tropical or subtropical agriculture unit emphasizing one or two crops that are grown for export.
A Spanish term used in Latin America for a large rural landholding, usually devoted to animal grazing; which had a high degree of internal self-sufficiency and operated under a semi-feudal system dominated by criollo owners who resided primarily in urban centers.
A Spanish term used in Argentina and Uruguay to describe a large rural landholding, usually devoted to stock raising, especially of horses and cattle; similar to a ranch.
Three primary challenges to the Catholic Church
- Secularism, or a pervasive lack of religious interest and involvement by the general membership.
- Fundamentalist Protestantism has diffused extensively throughout the region at the grassroots level.
- The leftist ideology
Three approached to achieve national unity in Mexico
- To est. good public education
- Building national allegiance
- Strengthening national allegiance