The Cell

  1. The cell was first discovered in the 1600's with the advent of what technological instrument?
    The Microscope
  2. What are the four tenets of cell theory?
    • All cells come from other cells
    • Cells are the building block of life for plants and animals
    • Cells are the smallest units of our bodies that can perform vital functions
    • Cells maintain homeostasis on a cellular level
  3. No matter the size of the organism, relative cell size remains:
    the same
  4. The size of an organism is determined not by cell size but by:
    cell number
  5. The small size of cells facilitates:
    • membrane transport
    • diffusion of solutes throughout cell
  6. Name the two common types of cells:
    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
  7. What is the primary difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?
    Location of DNA
  8. What are four commonalities of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?
    • Cytosol - part of the ICF
    • Plasma membrane
    • Chromosomes - some type of DNA
    • Ribosomes
  9. Where is the DNA found in a Eukaryotic cell?
    In the nucleus
  10. Where is the DNA found in a Prokaryotic cell?
    In the nucleoid
  11. True or False: Prokaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles?
  12. Name the two domains that include prokaryotic organisms
    • Domain Bacteria
    • Domain Archaea
  13. This part of a bacteria's anatomy is used for attachment to things?
  14. The nucleoid of a bacteria contains what?
  15. What are the three parts of a bacteria's outer membrane?
    • Plasma membrane
    • Cell wall
    • Capsule
  16. Flagella is used for:
  17. The organisms in Domain Archaea are also know as what?
  18. Organisms that thrive in extremely hostile and hot environments are:
  19. Halophiles prefer what type of environment?
  20. Organisms that thrive in extremely hostile and acidic environments are known as:
  21. Alkalophiles prefer which type of environment?
    Basic environments
  22. The two types of Eukaryotic cells are:
    Plant and Animal
  23. Cell walls in plants are made of:
    Cellulose - aids in structure, support, and protection
  24. Define Plasmodesmata
    Pores in the cell wall that lets CO2 in and O2 out
  25. True or False: The pores in a plants cell wall can respond to the environment?
  26. These organelles perform photosynthesis. They also give plants their green color.
  27. What are the two primary functions of vacuoles?
    • Water storage unit
    • Breaks down waste products
  28. This is the membrane surrounding a plant cells vacuole.
  29. In a Eukaryotic cell, this is the location of the genetic material.
    The nucleus
  30. DNA is organized into these structures
  31. Chromosomes, proteins, and other genetic information comprise this cellular material.
  32. What is the function of the nucleolus?
    Synthesizes ribosomal RNA which make ribosomes
  33. True or False: The nuclear membrane is double-layered?
  34. Between the layers of the nuclear membrane is the:
    perinuclear space
  35. This substance is the "cytoplasm" of the nucleus. It also contains the chromatin.
  36. Small holes in the nuclear membrane that let the ribosomes and RNA our of the nucleus are called:
    Nuclear pores
  37. Ribosomes are made up of what two parts?
    The large subunit and the small subunit
  38. Free ribosomes can be found floating around in the:
  39. Fixed ribosomes are attached to what organelle?
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  40. These organelles are the location of protein synthesis.
  41. As the protein content of a cell increases the number of ribosomes:
    also increase
  42. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus make up what?
    The Endomembrane System
  43. True or False: The endoplasmic reticulum is seperate from the nucleus?
    False - it is continous with the nuclear membrane
  44. This type of ER has ribosomes fixed to it
    Rough ER
  45. Rough ER's main function is:
    protein synthesis
  46. True or False: Rough ER is able to synthesize components of the cell membrane including the limited ability to regenerate cell structure.
  47. True or False: Smooth ER has ribosomes attached to it?
  48. This type of ER synthesizes fats or lipids
    Smooth ER
  49. This type of ER functions to metabolize carbohydrates
    Smooth ER
  50. True or False: Smooth ER plays a role in the detoxification of drugs and plays a role in drug tolerance.
  51. Sarcoplasmic reticulum are found in what type of human body tissue?
  52. This organelle in the smooth ER of your muscle tissue. It stores calcium to facilitate muscle contractions.
    Sarcoplasmic reticulum
  53. These are the folds in the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum.
  54. The ER sends synthesized materials to the Golgi apparatus in these structures:
    Transport vesicles
  55. This organelle is known as the shippping and distribution center of your cell.
    golgi apparatus
  56. True or False: The "cis" side of the golgi faces the ER
  57. Packaged materials leave the Golgi apparatus in what structures?
    secretory vesicles
  58. The side of the Golgi that faces the plasma membrane and releases the secretory vesicles is called the:
    "trans" side
  59. True or False: The Golgi apparatus is a processing center that can deal with immune system issues
  60. Lysosomes play a role in what process?
  61. Lysosomes contain these components which aid in the process of phagocytosis.
    digestive enzymes
  62. The cell wall brings food into the cell structure by means of this structure.
    food vacuole
  63. These organelles are instrumental in the process known as "autophaging."
  64. Peroxisomes contain what chemical compound?
  65. The process of breaking down old and worn out organelles is called:
  66. Proteasomes contain specific digestive enzymes known as:
    proteolytic enzymes
  67. These organelles are the site of ATP synthesis
  68. Mitochondria take in O2 and organic molecules, break them down, and release CO2 and this compound:
  69. True or False: the more ATP the cell requires, the more mitochondria will be in the cell
  70. The fiber network within the cytoplasm that organizes the cell and provides structural support is the:
  71. The three components of the cytoskeleton are:
    • microfilaments
    • microtubules
    • intermediate filaments
  72. True or False: Only one of the three components of the cytoskeleton works to maintain cell shape.
    False - all three types function maintain cell shape
  73. This cytoskeleton component works to enable muscle contraction, cell motility, and cell division.
  74. This cytoskeleton component is part of the structure of cilia and flagella, and also regulates chromosomal movement during cell division.
  75. This organelle is the microtubule organizing center
  76. Flagella are found in which type of human cell?
  77. These 9 sets of triple microtubules are found in the centrosome:
  78. Centrioles perform what function during cell division?
    pull apart chromosomes
  79. This component of cytoskeleton maintains cell shape, anchors organelles, and is a primary component of Keratin:
    intermediate filaments
  80. This jelly-like substance surrounds organelles and is part of the intra-cellular fluid:
  81. Are microvilli attached to the outside of the cell or continuous with the cell membrane?
    continuous with the cell membrane
  82. Do cilia move things into the cell or across the cell membrane?
    across the cell membrane
  83. True or False: Microvilli increase cell membrane surface area allowing for more secretion and absorbtion across cell membrane
Card Set
The Cell
Study questions for Chapter 7 "The Cell" for BIOL 189 College of Southern Nevada