Chapt 5

  1. hypnosis
    • an induced state of awareness
    • usually characterized by heightened suggestibility, deel relaxation, & highly focused attention
  2. meditation
    • a state of consciousness often induced by focusing on a repetitive behavior, assuming body positions, & minimizing external stimulation
    • intended to enhance self-knowledge, well-being, & spirituality
  3. psychoactive drugs
    chemicals that affect mental processes & behavior by their effects on the brain
  4. hallucinogens
    drugs that create hallucinations or alter perceptions of the external environment & inner awareness
  5. opiates
    • highly addictive drugs
    • derived from opium
    • can produce a profound sense of well-being & have strong pain-relieving properties
  6. depressants
    drugs that slow down mental & physical activity by inhibiting transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system
  7. stimulants
    drugs that arouse the central nervous system, speeding up mental & physical responses
  8. tolerance
    the reduced effectiveness a drug has after repeated use
  9. physical dependence
    • a process by which the body adjusts to and comes to need
    • a drug for its everyday functioning
  10. addiction
    • a condition in which a person continues to use a drug despite its adverse effects
    • often despite repeated attempts to discontinue using the drug
    • may be based on physical or psychological dependence
  11. withdrawal
    a pettern of uncomfortable or painful physical symptoms & cravings experienced by the user when the level of the drug is decreased or the drug is eliminated
  12. psychological dependence
    a desire to obtain or use a drug even though there is no physical dependence
  13. hypothalamus
    • controls your biological clock
    • regulatin changes in blood pressure, body temp, pulse, blood sugar levels, hormonal levels, activity levels, sleep & wakefulness over 24 hours in a normal environment
  14. reticular formation
    neural network in brainstem essential to the regulation of sleep, wakefulness, arousal, & attention
  15. somnabulism
  16. consciousness
    • the process by which the brain creates a model of internal & external experience
    • currently aware of, one stream, keeps from being overwhelmed
  17. nonconscious processes
    • any brain process that does not involve conscious processing
    • including both preconscious memories & unconscious processes
    • many streams
  18. preconscious memories
    information that is not currently in consciousness but can be recalled to consciousness voluntarily or after something calls attention to them
  19. unconscious
    • freudian theory: part of mind that houses memories, desires, & feelings that would be threatening if brought to consciousness
    • cognitive: collection of mental processes that operate outside of awareness- not typically suppressing information or working at odds with consciousness
  20. daydreaming
    a common (& quite normal) variation of consciousness in which attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies & away from the immediate situation
  21. circadian rhythms
    physiological patterns that repeat approximately every 24 hours, such as the sleep-wakefulness cycle
  22. REM sleep
    • a stage of sleep that occurs approximately every 90 minutes, marked by bursts of rapid eye movements occuring under closed eyelids
    • associated with daydreaming
  23. NREM sleep
    • the recurring periods mainly associated with the deeper stages of sleep
    • when a sleeper is not showing rapid eye movements
  24. sleep paralysis
    • a condition in which a sleeper is unable to move any of the voluntary muscles, except those controlling the eyes
    • normally occurs during REM sleep
  25. REM rebound
    a condition of increased REM sleep caused by REM-sleep deprivation
  26. sleep debt
    a sleep deficiency caused by not getting the amount of sleep that one requires for optimal functioning
  27. manifest content
    • the story line of a dream
    • taken at face value without interpretation
  28. latent content
    • the symbolic meaning of objects & events in a dream
    • interpretation based on Freud's psychoanalytic theory or one of its varients
  29. activation-synthesis theory
    • the theory that dreams begin with random electrical activation coming from the brain stem
    • dreams are the brain's attempts to make sense of-to synthesize-this random activity
  30. insomnia
    • the most common of sleep disorders
    • involving insufficient sleep, the inability to fall asleep quickly, frequent arousals, early awakenings
  31. sleep apnea
    a respiratory disorder in which the person intermittently stops breathing many items while asleep
  32. night terrors
    • deep sleep episodes that seem to produce terror, although any terrifying mental experience (dream) usually forgotten upon awakening
    • occurs mainly in children
  33. narcolepsy
    • a disorder of REM sleep
    • involving sleep-onset REM periods & sudden daytime REM sleep attacks usually accompanied by cataplexy
  34. cataplexy
    sudden loss of muscle control
  35. wish fulfillment theory
    • to Freudian psychoanalysts
    • dreams are a safety valve for unconscious desires
  36. stage 1 sleep
    • quick sleep stage with gradual loss of responsiveness to the outside
    • brain waves beta & theta
  37. stage 2 sleep
    • about 50% of sleep time
    • EEG's show high frequency sleep spindles & K complexes
  38. stage 3 sleep
    • deep sleep stage
    • EEG's show some high amplitude, low-frequency delta waves
  39. stage 4 sleep
    • deepest sleep stage
    • EEG's show mostly delta waves, slowed heart rate & respiration, lowered temperature & blood flow to the brain, growth hormone secreted
Card Set
Chapt 5
chpt. 5 psychology vocab