1. List three specifically endocrine organs
    Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal
  2. What does thyroid hormone do?
    • Controls metabolism, glucose, fat,
    • protein utilization,
  3. What does PTH do?
    Demineralizes bone to raise serum Calcium
  4. Differentiate between gluco corticoids and mineral corticoids
    • G- metabolism, inflammation, stress,glucose
    • M- fluid/electrolytes
  5. Name two endocrine changes that occur with aging
    Inc. hypothyroidism, thyroid CA, type II DM, osteoporosis
  6. What systemic problems occur with acromegaly?
    Organs & skeleton can't support enlarged structures
  7. Name three s/sx of Diabetes Insipidus
    Polyuria, low SG (>and equl to 1.002), thirst weakness, dehydration
  8. Name 2 tx for Diabetes Insipidous
    Replace volume, DDAVP, pitressin
  9. What neuro sx may accompany SIADH?
    HA, muscle twitching, changes in LOC, Sz
  10. What labs would support SIADH?
    Hyponatremia, low serum osmolarity
  11. List three sx of hyperthyroidism
    Restless, weakness, fatigue, tachycardias, tremors, appetite heat intolerance, diarrhea, exophthalmos, goiter, weight loss
  12. What medications are ordered for hyperthyroidism?
    PTU, methimazole, beta blockers, eye drops
  13. Name 2 nursing precautions for thyroidectomy pts
    Support head with hands, don't hyperextend, elevate HOB, monitor for bldg, sxn/trach/ suture remover in room, protect voice, monitor calcium
  14. What electrolyte imbalance may be associated with thyroidectomy?
  15. List three sx of thyrotoxicosis
    Hyperthermia, tachycardia, restlessness, CP, exophthalmos, severe weight loss
  16. Name three tx for thyrotoxicosis
    Antithyroid meds, beta blockers, IV corticosteroids, IV fluids, 02, supportive care
  17. List three sx of hypothyroidism
    Sluggishness, cold intolerance, apaty, fatique, constipation, dry, thin, brittle hair, edema, menstural disorders, elevated TSH, low HR, RR, T
  18. Name two teaching points for thyroid replacement therapy
    Take in am, don't stop suddenly, avoid Increase iodine foods, monitor thyroid levels, monitor for sx thyroid toxicity
  19. What electrolyte is regulated by parathyroid hormone?
  20. List three sx of hypoparathyroidism
    Tetany, muscle cramps, carpopedal spasm, laryngospasm, N/V diarrhea, hypotension, bradycardia, sz, paresthesias, bleeding, +Chvostek & Trousseau's signs
  21. Describe the treatment for hypoparathyroidism
    Calcium supplement, Vit D, high Calcium, low Phos.diet
  22. Name three sx of hyperparathyroidism
    Hypercalcemia, osmotic diuresis, sx dehydration bone pain, pathologic fx, weakness, arrhythmias, N/V constipation, clots
  23. Name two treatments for hyperparathyroidism
    IV fluids, diuretics, biphosphonates, parathyroidectomy, salmon calcitonin
  24. Name two teachings for fosamaax
    Take alone with water, in am, before breakfast, upright for 30"
  25. List three sx of adrenal insufficiency
    Hyponatremia, loww of extra cellular fluid, dec. cardiac output, hyperkalemia, orthostatic hypotension, hypoglycemia, dehydration, hyperpigmentation
  26. List two tx for adrenal insufficiency
    Hydrocortisone or fludrocaortisone (lifelong), consider DHEAS
  27. Name four side effects from glucocorticoids
    Fluid retention, mood changes, hyperglycemia, GI ulceration, fragile skin, osteoporosis, immunosupression, inc. intraocular pressure, wt gain, cushingoid appearance
  28. List two teaching points for adrenal insufficiency pts.
    When to call MD, reg. schedule for meals/exercise, immediate attention to infection/trauma, medic alert bracelet, don't dc meds suddenly, call MD for N/V/D
  29. What are two sx of pheochromocytoma?
    HTN, palpitations, sweating, HA, fainting, increased glucose
  30. What med is used to treat pheochromocytoma?
    Phentolamine (Regitine) or other alpha blockers
  31. List three sx of Cushing's syndrome
    Body changes, muscle wasting, thin skin, osteoporosis, renal calculi, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, HTN, Immunosuppression, ulcers, hirsuitism, acne, mood changes , menstrual disorders
  32. List two tx for Cushing's syndrome
    Remove pituitary/radiation, adrenalectomy sx management(diuretics, antihypertensives, low sodium/carb diet, abx)
  33. List two sx of hyperaldosteronism
    HA, weakness, fatigue, HTN, dysrhthymias, hypokalemia, hypernatremia
  34. List two treatments for hyperaldosteronism
    Adrenalectomy, corticosteroids, spironalactone, Na restriction
  35. List three classic sx of DM
    Polyphagia, polydypsia, polyuria
  36. Why does polyuria occur in DM?
    Glucose exceeds renal threshold, glucosuria occurs, osmotic diuresis
  37. What lab would indicate a risk for acidosis in a pt. with DM?
  38. How does type II differ from type I DM?
    In type II DM some endogenous insulin exists, does not always require exogenous insulin
  39. What should be tried first to control type II DM?
    Diet, exercise
  40. What does A1C measure?
    Average blood sugar over 3 months
  41. List three health promotion strategies to avoid DM
    Normal wt, balanced diet, regular exercise, CBG q3y after 45 in high risk
  42. List 4 dietary guidelines for DM pts
    Normalize CBG, 60-70% carbs, 12-20% protein, 10% fats, inc. fiber, low sodium, cautious ETOH, time meals w/insulin/exercise, monitor with sickness
  43. How do sulfonylureas work?
    Stimulate pancreas to secrete insulin-can cause hypoglycemia
  44. What is a benefit of biguanides?
    Doesn't cause hypoglycemia
  45. How should injection sites be rotated?
    rotate sites within one general area - abdomen preferred
  46. Which insulin should be drawn up first?
    Short or rapid acting
  47. What is unique about lantus insulin
    No peak, lasts 24 hrs
  48. Name three filndings that would differentiate DKA from hyperglycemia
    Ketones, kussmauls respirations, acidotic pH, acetone breath
  49. Name three tx for DKA
    IV insulin, IVF, potassium replacements, I/O's cardiac monitoring
  50. Name three ways HHNS differs from DKA
    Usually in type 2, CBG higher, pH normal, osmolarity higher, more neuro sx
  51. Name two causes of hypoglycemia
    Glucose lowering agents, inadequate calories, excess exercise, ETOH
  52. List three sx of hypoglycemia
    Hunger, irritability, tremors, perspiration, double vision, HA, sz
  53. List three sx of hyperglycemia
  54. Differentiate b/w Dawn & Somogyi phenomenon
    • Dawn - CBS rises b/w 0400 & 0800.
    • Somogyi- hypoglycemia results in rebound hyperglycemia in am, insulin resistance for 12-48 hr
  55. What are common sx of diabetic neuropathy?
    Pain, numbness, sweating/pupil, HR/BP changes, gastroparesis/constipation, GU dysfunction
  56. How should DM pts monitor for sx of renal pathology?
    Monitor urine for protein
  57. List three vascular disturbances assoc. with DM
  58. List three reasons why pts with DM are at greater risk for infection
    Vascular/neurologic changes (nutrition/sensation), hyperglycemia (medium), neutrophilic changes, delayed bladder emptying, glucosuria
Card Set
endocrine review game