NR435 Chapter 7

  1. anemia
    low levels of hemoglobin due to iron deficiency or red blood cells
  2. chronically undernourished
    Receiving less than 90% of the minimum calorie intake needed for normal growth and development and a healthy, productive life.
  3. contour plowing
    plowing along hill contours, reduced erosion
  4. cover crops
    plants such as alfalfa, rye, or clover that can be planted immediately after harvest to hold and protect the soil.
  5. famines
    Acute food shortages characterized by large-scale loss of life, social disruption and economic chaos.
  6. food security
    The ability for individuals to obtain sufficient food on a day by day basis
  7. GMOs
    Genetically Modified Organisms. Organisms created by combining natural or synthetic genes using the techniques of molecular biology
  8. genetic engineering
    Lab manipulation of genetic material using molecular biology
  9. green revolution
    Dramatically increased agricultural production brought about by miracle strains of grain
  10. gully erosion
    Removal of layers of soil, creating channels or ravines too large to be removed by normal tillage operations.
  11. malnourishment
    A nutritional imbalance caused by lack of specific dietary components or inability to absorb or utilize essential nutrients
  12. mulch
    Protective groundcover that protects soil, saves water and prevents weeds from growing
  13. obese
    Pathologically overweight, having a body mass over 30 pounds than average
  14. reduced tillage
    Farming methods that preserve soil and save energy and water through reduced cultivation.
  15. rill erosion
    The removal of thin layers of soil as little rivulets of running water gather and cut small channels in the soil.
  16. Salinization
    A process by which mineral salts accumulate in the soil, killing plants. Occrs when soils in dry climates are irrigated profusely.
  17. Sheet erosion
    Peeling off thin layers of soil from the land surface, primarily by wind and water
  18. soil horizons
    Horizontal layers that reveal a soil's history, characteristics and usefulness.
  19. strip-farming
    Planting different types of crops in alternating strips along land contours
  20. subsoil
    A layer of sooil beneath the topsoil that has lower organic content and higher concentrations of fine mineral particles.
  21. sustainable agriculture
    Ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just agricultural system. Stewardship, soil conservatio, and IPM are essential for sustainability.
  22. terracing
    Shaping the land to create level shelves of earth to hold water and soil; enables farmers to farm very steep hillsides.
  23. topsoil
    The first true layer of soil; layer in which organic material is mixed with mineral particles.
  24. waterlogging
    Water saturation of soil that fills all air spaces and causes plant roots to die from lack of oxygen- a result of overirrigation.
Card Set
NR435 Chapter 7
NR 435 vocab