BiSci: Lesson 3

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  1. cell membrane
    • -phospholipid bilayer that encloses cell
    • -protects cell
    • -materials enter and leave through specific channels
  2. nucleus
    • contains DNA
    • -regulates cell processes through chromosomal genes
  3. mitochondria
    • -the "powerhouse" of cell
    • -provides energy in form of ATP
  4. what makes the mitochondrion unique?
    • It has a double membrane
    • -has its own DNA
    • -reproduces itself
  5. smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    synthesizes lipids
  6. rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    modifies proteins synthesized by ribosomes attached to its surface.
  7. ribosomes
    • sythesize proteins
    • -found in cytoplasm or attached to rough ER
  8. golgi apparatus
    • modfies roteins and lipids synthesized within the ER
    • -packages these products for transport to other parts of the cell or for secretion;
    • -prepares lysosomal enzymes
    • -transfers to lysosome
  9. lysosome
    intracellular digestion and disposal of cell wastes
  10. cytoskelton
    • includes microfilaments
    • -helps determine cell shape
    • -assists with intracellular transport of materials
    • -anchors and moves organelles.
  11. centrioles
    constructed of microtubules that help organize chromosome migrations during cell division
  12. cilia
    • microtubule hairs on the cell surface that help control cell surface mobility
    • - especially important in respiratory tract lining,
  13. flagellum
    single long microtubule hair used for cell mobility
  14. microvilli
    -increases cell membrane surface area for absorption -found in intestinal and kidney cells
  15. The ______ is involved in disposal of cellular debris
  16. The ______ of some cells is modified to form microvilli.
    cell membrane
  17. Protein synthesis takes place on the ______
    endoplasmic reticulum
  18. The cell's genetic material is located in the ______
  19. The ______ is the "powerhouse" of the cell
  20. The ______ is the control center for regulating cellular functions
    endoplasmic reticulum
  21. The ______ contains citric acid (Krebs) cycle enzymes
  22. The ______ regulates the movement of molecules into and out of the cell
    cell membrane
  23. Hormone receptors are located on the ______
    cell membrane
  24. the three major metabolic pathways involved in aerobic cellular respiration
    The three major metabolic pathways are glycolisis, citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle), and the electron transport chain
  25. Diffusion
    • the random movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to
    • an area of lower concentration via their own kinetic energy (passive transport)
  26. Osmosis
    • the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from the side of higher water concentration (lower solute) to the side of lower
    • water concentration (higher solute) (Passive transport)
  27. Facilitated transport
    A molecule is transported across the cell membrane from a higher concentration to a lower concentration (of that molecule) via a protein carrier
  28. Active transport:
    Molecules are moved across the cell membrane against their concentration gradient by a protein pump. Energy is required
  29. Isotonic solution
    The solute concentration of two solutions (inside and outside cell) is the same
  30. Hypertonic solutions
    The solute concentration outside the cell is higher (therefore H20 concentration is lower), causing water to leave the cell and it will shrink or "crenate".
  31. Hypotonic solutions
    The solute concentration outside the cell is lower (therefore H20 concentration is higher). Water will enter cell causing it to swell and burst or "lyse."
  32. A normal red blood cell placed in a solution begins to swell. This means that
    water is moving into the cell.
  33. A substance moving across a cell membrane from a region of low to high concentration can do so by
    active transport
  34. The organelle responsible for protein processing, packaging and transport is the
    golgi apparatus
  35. Which organelle is incorrectly paired with its corresponding function?
    microvilli--cell motility
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BiSci: Lesson 3
Lesson 3 key concepts
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