BiSci: Lesson 2

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  1. provides cohesive attraction between adjacent water molecules
  2. acts as a linkage between amino acids in proteins
  3. Ionic Bond
    • -Based on electrical attraction
    • -involve positive (+) cation bonding with negative (-) anion
  4. 3 common ionic bonds:
    • NaCl (table salt)
    • KCl (potassium chloride)
    • CaCl2 (calcium chloride)
  5. What happens to ionic bonds in liquid?
    They dissociate into their original components
  6. Covalent bond
    atoms sharing electrons in their outer shell.
  7. Hydrogen bond
    a slightly charged (+), covalently bonded hydrogen attracted to a negatively charged atom
  8. peptide bond
    covalent bond between amino acids
  9. disulfide bond
    covalent linkage between two adjacent sulfur atoms
  10. contain positive and negative ions
    inorganic compounds
  11. ionic bonding base upon unlike charges
    inorganic compounds
  12. are generally small in biological systems
    inorganic compounds
  13. acids, bases, and salts
    inorganic compounds
  14. always have both C and H
    organic compounds
  15. always have covalent bonding
    organic compounds
  16. can form long, chain-like repeating structures
    organic compounds
  17. DNA/RNA, lipids, proteins
    organic compounds
  18. Contain C, H, O in a 1:2:1 ratio
  19. not water soluble
    neutral fats and oils
  20. have saturated fats, are implicated in atherscerlosis
    animal fats and butter
  21. have one to many double covalent bonds in fatty acid chains
    plant fats
  22. primary component of cell membrane
  23. formed from a basic structure of four fused carbon-rings
  24. sex hormones, adrenocortical, cholesterol
  25. the most diverse group of macromolecules with the most varied functions
  26. amino acids joined by peptide bonds
  27. the sequence of amino acids that make up a specific protein
    protein primary structure
  28. polypeptide formed as an alpha helix or folded into a pleated structure; maintained with hydrogen bonds
    protein secondary structure
  29. protein's distinctive 3D shape
    protein tertiary structure
  30. DNA and RNA
    nucleic acids
  31. Which bond is typically found in inorganic compounds?
  32. two atoms in a compound that share outer orbital electrons?
    hydrogen bond
  33. a specific bond that stabilizes the tertiary structure of some proteins
  34. the bond between oxygen and the two hydrogen atoms in a water molecule
  35. involves interactions between cations and anions
    ionic bonding
  36. hundreds of thousands of very weak linkages which provide stability to macromolecules such as polypeptides
  37. includes compounds such as steroids and cholesterols
    lipid or phospholipid
  38. chemical structure of most enzymes
    polypeptide or protein
  39. the principle structural component of cell membranes
    lipid or phopholipid
  40. involved in transcriptional and translational aspects of protein synthesis
    nucleic acid or nucleotide
  41. adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the storage form of energy
    nucleic acid or nucleotide
  42. contains a nonpolar, water insoluble end and a polar, water soluble end
    lipid or phopholipid
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BiSci: Lesson 2
Lesson 2 key concepts
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