1. If one bacterium goies through four generations, how many bacteria will result:
  2. How long will it require ten bacteria to grow into more than 100 bacteria if the doubling time is 30 min:
    - 2 hours

    - 10x2=20, 20x2=40, 40x2=80, 80x2= 160
  3. What does exponential growth mean:
    - In every generation (or growth cycle) twice as many cells are formed.

    - This is in contrast to adding one individual each generation
  4. Explain what bacteria are doing in each of 4 phases of growth curve:
    1- Lag=cells adapt to nutrients and prepare for cell division (fission)

    2- Log=cells douple in regular intervals

    3- Stationary=cells maintain but do not continue to grow because of nutrient depletion

    4- Decline=cells die because of lack of energy and nutrient depletion
  5. Define autolysis and why a bacterium does it:
    - When a cell causes its own breakdown.

    - Autolysis results in release of cell components that help the remaining viable cells spread and grow.
  6. How can the number of viable cells in a cx be determined:
    - Performing dilutions at set time points, spreading aliquots on petri dishes, and counting the number of colonies that grow.
  7. What is CFU:
    - Colony forming unit

    - Each viable cell that can grow into a colony on a petri plate is a CFU
  8. What information does a turbididimetric assay yield:
    - Determines how many bacterial cells, living or dead, are present by use of a spectrometer.

    - CFU only reflect viable cells
  9. Anabolism:
    - Constructive metabolism

    - The use of energy and building blocks to make new cellular materials
  10. Catabolism:
    - Destructive metabolism

    - The break down of complex materials that cells use for making more cells
  11. Metabolism:
    - All the chemical processes occuring in a cell
  12. Amino Acid:
    - Building blocks from which proteins are constructed.

    - ie. Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
  13. Protein:
    - Long chains of amino acids connected by peptide bonds

    - ie. Enzymes, antibodies, hemoglobin
  14. Enzyme:
    - Any of various proteins origionating from living cells and capable of producing certain chemical changes in organic substances by catalytic action, as in digenstion

    - Any of numerous proteins produced in living cells that accelerate or catalyze the metabolic processes of an organism
  15. Some enzymatic reactions are controlled by negative feedback. What happens when the product of a given reaction becomes hi in concentration:
    - When the cell is in an environment w/ample amino acids, the cell gets the signal to save energy and to not make its own amino acid
  16. What is activation energy:
    - Amt of heat necessary to cause a chemical reaction

    - Enzymes can dramatically reduce the activation energy
  17. List the three major pathways of catabolism in organisms:
    1- Glycolysis

    2- Krebs Cycle (TCA)

    3- Electron Transport
  18. Glycolysis:
    - Glyco = sugar; Lysis = breakdown

    - Produce pyruvate and 2 ATP molicules
  19. Krebs Cycle (TCA):
    - Further breaks down pyruvate

    - Produce CO2; H2O; ATP

    - Metabolic pathway involved in chemical conversion of carbohydrate, fats, and proteins into CO2 and H2O to generate a form of usable energy (ATP)

    - Produce 30 ATP
  20. Electron Transport:
    - Transport energy containing electrons

    - ATP is synthesized
  21. Respiration:
    - Passage of electrons to O2 to produce H2O
  22. Anaerobic respiration:
    - In the absence of O2, can utilize nitrate (NO3-) or sulfate (SO4-2) as the final electron acceptor
  23. Name the starting compound of glycolosis:
    - glucose
  24. How many ATPs are produced by the following processes:

    1. Glycolysis
    2. TCA/Krebs
    - Glycolysis = 2

    - TCA/Krebs = 30
  25. Name the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration:
    - O2
  26. Name two possible final electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration:
    1. Nitrate (NO3-)

    2. Sulfate (SO4-2)
  27. List 6 commercially valuable products produced by fermentation:
    (lactic acid)

    • 1. Cheese
    • 2. Yogurt
    • 3. Vinegar
    • 4. Acetone
    • 5. Butyl Alcohol
    • 6. Beer and Wine
  28. Fermentation:
    - Process of incomplete catabolism of sugars-to produce alcohol in wines

    - Growth environment is anaerobic

    - Pyruvate from glycolysis is converted to ethyl alc instead of going through Kreb

    - Any product produced from catabolism except CO2 and H2O
  29. Name 3 types of macromolecules for which building blocks, or precursor molecules, are required:
    1. DNA

    2. RNA

    3. Amino Acids
  30. Photosynthesis:
    - capture energy from light into chlorophyll-like chemicals
  31. Chemosynthesis:
    - use salts found in rock as energy source
Card Set
CH: 13 Cell Growth and Metabolism