1. Psychodynamic approach to personality
    Psychoanalytic theory, devised by Sigmund Freud

    • *According to theorist, personality is shaped by inner forces and conflicts about which adolescents have little awarenes
    • *Freud, much of behavior is motivated by the unconscious—the memories, knowledge, beliefs, and feelings that is exposed throughout adolescences or control.
    • *
  2. Freudian Psychoanalytic theory: ego
    *is the part of personality that seeks to balance the desires of the id with the realities of the objective, rational world.
  3. Freudian Pshcoanaltyic Theory: ID
    *raw unorganized inherited portion of personality that seeks to fulfill out primatie urges relating to hunger, sex, aggression
  4. Freudian Pshcoanaltyic Theory: Superego
    *represents the rights and wrongs of society as taught by an individual’s parent and society
  5. Five factors that describe basic personality
    • 1. Openess
    • 2. Conscientiousness
    • 3.Extraversion
    • 4.Agreeableness
    • 5.Neuroticism
  6. Environmental and genetic influence of personality development
    *evolutionary approach to personality argues that personality traits beneficial to the survival and reproductive success of our ancestors are more likely to be maintained and passed to subsequent generations.
  7. Piaget’s 3 stages to moral development:
    • Heteronomous: 4-7yrs
    • children play according to their own rules and winning is equated with having a good time

    • Incipient 7-10 yrs
    • Children play according to their own rules in winning is equated with having a good time

    • Autononmous 10 yrs+-
    • That children become fully aware that rules can be modified which later transcend their understanding that laws can be chaned according to the will of people
  8. Kohlberg’s 3 levels of moral development: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional
    Pre-conventional: at this level, the concrete interest of the individual are considerd in terms of reward and punishments

    Conventional: at this level people approach moral problems as members of society. They are interested in pleasing others by acting as good members of society

    Post-Conventional: At this level peopel use moral principles which are seen as a broader that those of any particular society.
  9. Gilligan’s Moral Development in Girls: individual survival, self-sacrifice, morality of nonviolence
    Individual Survival: concentration on what is practical and best for self. Gradual transsition from selfishness to responsibility

    Self Sacrifice: Woman must sacrifice her own wishes to what other peopel want. Gradual transition from goodness to truth

    Morality non-violence: equivalane is established between self and others- is seen as immoral
  10. Bandura’s import of models: reinforcement and abstract modeling
    *Modeling theory paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles in a process called abstract modeling. Abstract modeling occurs when adolescents rely on generalized principles that underlie the behavior that they observe
  11. Multifaceted approach to understanding self during adolescence
    academic self, social self, emotional self, and physical self
  12. The hypothetical standards adolescents use to compare themselves: upward and downward
    Upward Comparison where adolescents compare themselves to others who are slightly more capable and proficient that they are.

    Downward Comparison when adolescents’ self esteem is at stake, they compare themselves to others who are less competent or successful
  13. Erikson’s psychosocial development of identity during adolescence
    • culture plays a vital role in our social development
    • *Psychosocial development examines changes in our interactions with and understanding of one another, as well as our knowledge and understanding of members of society.

    Development occurs throughout our lives in eight stages
  14. Erikson 8 stages
    • 1. Trust vs Mistrust : 0-1 1/2 yrs
    • 2. Autonomy vs Shame and doubt: up to 3 yrs
    • 3. Initiatve vs guilt 3-6 yrs
    • 4.Industry v inferiority
    • 5.Identity vs identity confusion (adolesence)
    • 6.Intimacy vs isolation (Early adult)
    • 7. Generativity vs stagnation(mid adult)
    • 8.Ego integrity vs despair (late adult)
  15. Various roles that adolescents may “try on” and the impact of self-exploration
    1.Some adolescents adopt a cultural assimilation model, where they are told that cultural identities are to be assimilated into a unified U.S. culture

    2.Others adopt a pluralistic society model, where they are told that U.S. society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups and that their cultural heritage should not be assimilated but rather preserved.
  16. Psychological moratorium as it relates to adolescent development
    Because of the pressures of the identity-versus-role confusion period.

    During this time, adolescents take time off from upcoming responsibilities of adulthood and explore various roles and possibilities
  17. Macia’s crisis versus commitment theory on identity development
    Crisis is a period of identity development in which an adolescent consciously chooses between various alternatives and makes decisions

    Commitment is psychological investment in a course of action or ideology
  18. Two cultural approaches to identity development
    Collectivism – the notion that the well-being of the group is more important than that of the individual.

    Individualisms – personal identities, uniqueness, freedom, and worth of the individual are center more than the goals of society.
  19. Importance of self-esteem and consequences of high and low self-esteem
    • Cost to Learning
    • *Adolescents may perform well on certain task due to intrinsic interest, yet avoid others due to disengagement and threat to esteem

    • Cost to Relationships
    • *Adolescents who view relationship success as a source of self-esteem may be selfish and less supportive.

    • Cost to Mental and Physical Health
    • Adolescents who view their self-worth in terms of performance endure high levels of stress.
  20. Functions of adolescent’s emotional development and import
    • Functions:
    • Prepare for action
    • Prepare for future
    • Interact with other effectively
  21. Three domains and cycles of self-esteem
    • Expectation
    • Effort/anxiety
    • Outcome
  22. Cultural differences in adolescent emotional development
  23. The impact of the generation gap on adolescents
    *The differences in terms of fundamental social and psychological characteristics between generations are smaller than the differences within generations

    *Contrary to popular belief, most adolescents have deep love, affection, and respect for their parents—and parents feel the same way about their children
  24. Autonomy and development during adolescents: emotional, behavioral, and attitudinal and value
    The Development of Autonomy:

    Emotional: focuses on adolescents’ close relationships with others, and particularly with parents.

    Behavioral: relates to the growing ability of adolescents not only to make their own decisions but also to carry them out.

    Attitudinal and Value: encompasses the development of independence in the real of attitudes and values that represent more of who they are and less of what their parents and other authority figures want them to be.
  25. Attachment patterns in adolescents
    • Securely attached: well adjusted having postive self esteem and social competence
    • -caretaker is consistanly warm and nurturing

    • Avoidant: fearful of getting hur ant they shut down emotionally
    • -caretaker is distant, aloof and ignored ore rejected infant

    • Ambivalant:need frequent reassurance that they are loved, and they are afraid tehat they will be abandoned.
    • -caretaker provides inconsistant treatment, sometimes being higly attentive while they time tehy ignored the child
  26. Types of parental discipline styles and impact on adolescents
    Authoritarian: Controlling/puntative/rigid/cold/ word is law

    Permissive: lax inconsistant feedback, require litte of their children

    Authoritative: Setting clear and consistant limits tendig to be strict, loving supportive

    Uninvolved: Litte interest/indifferent/rejecting/abusive
  27. The diverse types of family arrangements
    • Single Parent
    • Divorced
    • Blended Famalies
    • Gay/Lesbian Families
    • Adolescents and Sibilings
    • Foster Care Families
  28. How adolescents are affected by each diverse and changing family arrangement
    *Adolescents who feel connected to their families and perceive that they are supported and love pass through the period more successful than those who feel unconnected to their families
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