1. Folic Acid
    • Involved in methionine and purine synthesis
    • Deficiency causes neural tube defects and megaloblastic anemia
    • Can mask B12 deficiency, if administered at high levels
  2. B12/cobalamin
    • Coenzyme for homocysteine--> methionine and methylmalonyl CoA --> acetyl CoA
    • Deficiency causes pernicious anemia, dementia, and spinal degeneration
  3. C/ascorbic acid
    • Antioxidant, coenzyme for collagen synthesis, facilitates Fe absorption
    • Deficient in scurvy (poor wound healing, loose teeth, sore gums, increased bleeding time)
  4. B6/pyridoxine
    • Important coenzyme in AA metabolism
    • Needed for heme synthesis, deficient in sideroblastic anemia
    • Deficiency causes glossitis, and can be induced by isoniazid and alcohol abuse
  5. B1/thiamine
    • Deficiency causes beriberi (tachycardia, vomiting, convulsions) and Wernicke-Korsakoff (apathy, memory loss, ophthalmoplegia, seen in alcoholics)
    • Dry beriberi--polyneuritis and muscle wasting
    • Wet beriberi--high output cardiac failure
  6. Niacin/nicotinic acid
    • Active form is NAD+ and NADP+, derived from tryptophan
    • Deficient in pellagra (dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia) and Hartnup disease (impaired renal tryptophan reabsorption)
    • Used to treat hyperlipidemia (lowers triglycerides)
  7. B2/riboflavin
    • Active form is FAD
    • Deficiency causes dermatitis, stomatitis, and magenta tongue
  8. Biotin
    • Important in carboxylation reactions
    • Deficiency in excessive ingestion of raw eggs
  9. Pantothenic acid
    Active form is coenzyme A
  10. Vitamin A/retinoic acid/B-carotene
    • Important for reproductive function, vision, growth, and maintenance of epithelial tissue
    • Deficiency causes infertility, night blindness, growth retardation, and xerophthalmia
    • Teratogenic
  11. Vitamin D
    • Important in Ca uptake
    • Deficiency causes rickets and osteomalacia
    • Babies need to be given vitamin D supplements
    • Excess seen in sarcoidosis
  12. Vitamin K
    • Carboxylates gluatmate residues in liver to form clotting factors
    • Deficiency causes increased PT and PTT, but normal bleeding time
    • Produced by intestinal bacteria
    • Newborns are given IM vitamin K
  13. Vitamin E/tocopherol
    • Antioxidant
    • Deficiency (rare) can cause hemolytic anemia
Card Set