Activities such as speed dating is based on our ability to _____.
D) make a good first impression
_____ are our beliefs about what characteristics or traits tend to go together.
D) Implicit personality theories
-->People generally assume that some traits typically occur together. We aren't necessarily aware of these assumptions. These assumptions and beliefs together make up our implicit theories about personality. -->
____ tend to persist and strongly influence our interactions with others.
E) First impressions
Depressed individuals sometimes engage in a self-defeating pattern of attributions in which they _____.
B) make internal attributions to negative outcomes and external attributions to positive outcomes
-->The self-defeating pattern of attributions displayed by depressed individuals involves attributing negative outcomes to internal, stable causes and attributing positive outcomes to external, temporary causes. -->
The tendency to attribute our positive outcomes to internal causes and our negative outcomes to external causes is due to our _____.
B) self-serving bias
When Susan saw James slip and fall on a patch of ice, she assumed it was because James is clumsy, even though she had also just slipped on a patch of ice. This is an example of _____.
E) fundamental attribution error
The fundamental attribution error involves our tendency to explain others' behavior in terms of dispositions, even in the presence of obvious situational causes. -->
According to Kelley's theory of causal attribution, the extent to which others react to a stimulus or event in the same way as the person we are considering is _____.
Consensus is defined as the extent to which other persons react to a stimulus in the same way as the person we are considering. -->
People tend to pay more attention to the actions of others when they are _____.
B) low in social desirabiltiy
We tend to pay more attention to a behavior when it is freely chosen, yields distinctive, noncommon effects, and is low in social desirability
Women are better at understanding nonverbal messages than men are, except _____.
e)when noncommon effects are involved
D) when deception is involved
_____ are fleeting facial expressions that last less than a second and are difficult to suppress.
Nonverbal cues are relatively _____.
When we are in a positive mood, we tend to _____.
A) rely more heavily on heuristic thinking
:Being in a good mood encourages automatic mental processes, such as heuristic thinking.
That we are more likely to remember positive information when we are in a positive mood is because of _____
A) mood congruence effects
:What we remember while we are in a particular mood may be partly determined by what was previously learned while we were in that mood.
Maria and Sylvia, two neighbors, recently visited a casino together. Maria won $500, while Sylvia won $700. Thinking about Sylvia’s winnings, Maria becomes unhappy and dissatisfied with her own winnings. This is an example of _____.
A}a lateral counterfactual
B)an ambiguous counterfactual
C)a downward counterfactual
D)an upward counterfactual
E)an unrealized counterfactual
D)an upward counterfactual
:Upward counterfactuals involve comparing one’s current outcomes with more favorable ones.
Because of _____, many people continue to believe that SUVs are safer than smaller cars despite data that shows that many SUVs are actually more dangerous than smaller vehicles.
E) the availability heuristic
:It is much easier for most people to recall dramatic auto accidents in which a large SUV has crushed a smaller vehicle, which leads to a strong effect on people’s perceptions of safety.
After having watched a particularly scary movie while she was home alone, Martha finds herself jumping at every sound her old house makes. This is due to the effect of _____.
:Priming increases the availability of specific types of information we hold in memory because of exposure to specific stimuli or events.
The representativeness heuristic is a strategy for making judgments that is based on _____
A)the idea that a particular mood may be used as a retrieval aid to help us remember information we first encountered when we were in that mood
B)how easily certain information can be retrieved from our memory stores
C)our efforts to prevent some thoughts from entering our conscious awareness
D) the extent to which a current stimulus or event resembles other stimuli or categories
E)our tendency to use a number or value as a starting point and then make adjustments to that starting point
he extent to which a current stimulus or event resembles other stimuli or categories
Our schemas and beliefs will frequently remain unchanged even when we are faced with contradictory information because of _____.
E) the perseverance effect
:Schemas can shape our behavior in a way that leads us to believe that the schema has been confi
_____ is the process by which information is stored in memory.
C) Encoding : involved with storing information in memory.
A schema is _____.
A) a mental framework centered on a particular theme that helps us organize social information
:Schemas help us make sense of the world by directing our attention to important details, by influencing our memories, and by helping us to process information quickly.
The underlying purpose of conducting experiments is to _____.
A) collect information that is relevant to a particular theory
:Experiments are conducted in order to gather information that is relevant to a theory.
When deception is used during a scientific investigation, most research participants _____.
E) do not react negatively to temporary deception
The requirement for researchers to obtain the informed consent of research participants _____.
D) helps to serve as a safeguard against inappropriate use of deception during experiments: Informed consent and debriefing are two methods by which research participants are protected from the possible harmful effects of deception.
A social psychologist wants to study the effects of rewards on learning. She asks two groups of students to memorize a list of 35 words, 5 words at a time. There are 5 students in each group. After each set of 5 words is memorized, she gives one group a free movie ticket. The other group does not receive a reward for learning the words. The researcher carefully measures how long it takes the members of each group to memorize the word list. In this example, the dependent variable is _____.
A) the time it takes students to learn the word list : The dependent variable is the one that the researcher measures.
A social psychologist wants to study the effects of rewards on learning. She asks two groups of students to memorize a list of 35 words, 5 words at a time. There are 5 students in each group. After each set of 5 words is memorized, she gives one group a free movie ticket. The other group does not receive a reward for learning the words. The researcher carefully measures how long it takes the members of each group to memorize the word list. In this example, the independent variable is _____.
A) the free movie tickets: The independent variable is the variable that is changed or varied in an experiment.
A formal experiment involves _____.
D) making a change to one variable and measuring any change that occurs in a different variable
A significant correlation between two variables indicates that _____.
D) two variables are related to each other in some way
Negative correlations indicate that _____.
E) one variable increases as the other decreases
One advantage of survey research is that _____.
B) surveys allow information to be collected from a very large number of people
Naturalistic observation relies on _____.
C) systematic observation that occurs in natural settings
We decide whether an individual belongs to one social group or another through _____.
B) social categorization
The ideal self is _____.
C) A mental representation of the kind of person we would like to be
Professor Smithwyck is studying the short-term mating strategies of teenagers and young adults. The professor’s research most likely falls in the realm of _____.
D) evolutionary psychology
A scientific discipline that seeks to understand the nature and cause behavior of individuals behavoir and thought in social situations.
D) Social Psychology
Remembering well and efficiently information pertaining to oneself is
B) self-reference effect.
Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information is
A person's answer to the question "Who am I?" is
Social identity does not include
C) a person's overall evaluation of oneself.
The tendency to perceive oneself favorably is
C) self-serving bias
"Terror management theory" posits positive self-esteem that protects us from feeling anxiety over
D) our own death.
The act of expressing oneself in ways designed to create a favorable impression is
Social representations are
C) our most important and most unexamined convictions.
The study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables is
B) correlational research.
The procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion is
A) random sample.
The experimental factor that a researcher manipulates is a(n)
A) independent variable.
The process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a(n)
A) random assignment.
A testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events is
Social psychology is
B) the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Informed consent is
D) a legal term used in experimental research.
An experimenter manipulates what variable?
The text states that social psychology
A) is one important perspective from which we can view and understand ourselves.
Social psychology _______________________ than personality psychology.
A) has a shorter history
Feedback: Social psychology has a shorter history than personality psychology.