What block has a prolonged PRI beyond 0.2 sec (200ms) and is termed as a conduction delay rather than a heart block?
1st Degree AV Block
What block has a progressive prolongation of PRI until QRS drops?
2nd Degree AV Block Type 1 (Wekenbach)
What block has intermitient dropped beats w/constant PRI and commonly progresses to 3rd Degree Block?
2nd Degree AV Block Type II (Classic)
What block has failure od depolarizations to pass from atria to the ventricles, and ventricles are paced independently from site below AV Node?
3rd Degree AV Block (Complete)
What type of pacemaker is used most commonly for AFib?
What type of pace maker has AV pacing w/no sensing?
DOO (Magnet Mode)
What type of pacemaker is AV sequential, non-Psynchronous pacing w/dual chamber sensing and dual chamber inhibition?
What type of pacemaker is dual sensing w/ventricular pacing and as 1 lead w/electrode w/ventricle and sensor in atrium?
What are the two benefits of AV pacing?
- Physiological timing of AV valve closure
- Improves Cardiac Output
How many positions are there for Permanent Pacemaker Codes?
What position refers to the chambers being paced?
What position refers to the chambers being sense?
What position refers to pacemaker response of sensing?
What position refers to programmability of rate modulation?
What position, rarely used, refers to antitachyarrthmia funciont?
What is a closely spaced bipolar electrode can be positioned across the anterosuperor portion of septal tricuspid valve leaflet in close proximity HIS Bundle and indicated by H spike on EKG?
The HIS Bundle Electrogram
List indications of permanent pacing.
- Sick Sinus Syndrome
- Heart Block
- HIS Bundle Electrogram
- Alternating BBB
- Hypertensive Carotid sinus Syndrome
- Neurocardiogenic syncope (Vasovagul Syncope)
- Dilated cardiomyopathy
- Special situations (Children w/CHD, Heart Transplants, Pause Dependent VTach)
- Post MI
List indication for temporary pacers.
- AV Block w/MI
- Right Heart Cath with LBBB
- Anti-Tachycardia Therapy
- Other Uses (Post cardiac surgery, bridge to permanent pacing, test for effiecny for permanent pacer)
What is a unit of charge that can be negative or positive?
What is the unit of an electrical current that moves at a rate of 1 coulomb/sec?
What is the unit of electrical pressure that causes current to flow?
What is the opposition to flow of current?
What is the unit of Resistance?
What is the fundamental unit of work or energy?
Joule (J = V * I * Time)
What is a unit of power or rate or work?
Watt (1 Watt = 1 J/sec)
What is the most commonly used battery that last 4 to 10 years?
Lithium anode battery (battery life does not equal pacemaker life)
What is the second most commonly used battery?
Lithium iodine battery
What battery is mostly used in AICD (Automatic Implantable Cardioverter Defibulator)?
Lithium vanadium battery
What are the advantages of Nuclear Powered battery?
What are the disadvantages of Nuclear Powered Battery?
- Not cost effective
- Radiation hazard
- Rarely used
Which battery can be externally charged?
Cadmium Nickel battery
What are the three styles of pacemaker leads?
- Epicardial Screw in lead
- Atrial J Lead
What type of lead has two wires and current travels from negative terminal to the myocardium and back via positive lead?
What type of lead has one wire and current travels to exposed tip (cathode) through myocardium and chestwall and back to metal wall of the pacemaker generator (anode)?
What type of battery does a temporary pace maker use?
Standard 9 Volt battery
A minium electrical stimulus required to cause muscle contraction
All modern pacers are designed to sense patients intrinsic heart rate.
What term is used to describe the voltage is set high enough to stimulate the heart?
What term is used to describe voltage gradually reduced until stimulation ceases?
Loss of capture
What term is used to describe voltage gradually increased until capture regained?
What is the most commonly sensed cardiac event?
Depolorization of the ventricles
What are different types of permanent pacemaker programmibilty functions?
- pulse width
- sensitivity circuit
- noise sensing
- refractory period
- hysteresis (Greek for to "lag behind"
What are different types of temporary pacemaker programmibility functions?
- Energy Output