Adrenal Hormones S2M1

  1. What are the five classes of Steroid Hormones
    • Progestins
    • Glucocorticoids
    • Mineralocorticoids
    • Estrogens
    • Androgens
  2. Progestins are formed when, and what is an example of one
    • During pregnancy
    • Progesterone
  3. Glucocorticoids are produced when, and what is an example on one
    • Produced by adrenal cortex during stress
    • Cortisol
  4. What is the role of Mineralocorticoids, and what is an example of one
    • Regulate renal sodium and potassium excretion
    • Aldosterone
  5. What happens when Mineralocorticoids are high
    • Potassium secretion is high
    • Sodium retention is high
  6. Estrogens have what primary effect
    Regulate female reproductive function from ovary and placenta, Estradiol is an example
  7. Androgens
    Virilizing hormones from the testies (also formed in the adrenal cortex)
  8. What is the biosynthetic pathway of Androgens and Estrogens
    • Cholesterol
    • Progestin
    • Androgens
    • Estrogens
  9. What is the biosynthetic pathway of Mineralocorticoids
    • Cholesterol
    • Progestins
    • Mineralocorticoids
  10. What are the major sources of cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis
    • LDL from blood
    • Endogenous synthesis
    • Stored cholesterol esters
  11. What is the regulating step in the synthesis of Progesterone
  12. What is the role of Aromatase in steroid synthesis
    Converts Testosterone to Estradiol
  13. Dihydrotestosterone
    A steroid hormone (made from testosterone) that is 5x more potent then Testosterone and is used for the development of the male genitalia
  14. Hydroxylations of steroid hormones are dependent on
    Cytochrome P450
  15. What are the transport proteins for steroid hormones
    • Trasncortin - Glucocorticoids
    • Sex-hormone binding globulin - Estrogens & Androgens
  16. Where does most of the inactivation of the Steroid hormones take place
  17. Cushings syndrome
    • Excess in glucocorticoids which can be caused by an ACTH secreting pituitary tumor
    • Patients get fat deposits most evident around the face and kneck and sparing the trunk
  18. How does high Cortisol cause hypertension
    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid but has Mineralocorticoid activity as well which causes sodium retention and hypertension
  19. Licorice induced hypertension
    Licorice inhibits the formation of Cortisol to Cortisone in the kidneys causing Hypertension, Edema, and Hyperkalemia
  20. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (adrenogenital syndrome)
    • Virilization due to
    • Deficiency of 21-hydroxylase or 11-hydroxylase (Steps of cortisol formation)
    • Reduced corticosteroids
    • Elevated ACTH
    • Overproduction of adrenal androgens
  21. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, how can you tell the difference between a deficiency in 21-Hydroxylase and 11-Hydroxylase
    • 21 - Salt cravings and Hyperkalemia present
    • 11 - Hypokalemia, Edema, and hypertension will be present
  22. 5 alpha-reductase
    Turns Testosterone into Dihydrotestosterone
  23. 5 alpha-reductase deficiency
    • Ambiguous genitalia
    • Virilization at puberty
  24. What inhibits the secretion of ACTH
    Increase of corticosteroids (cortisol) in the blood (Not Androgens)
  25. What triggers the formation of Cholesterol into Progesterone which eventually makes Corticosteroids and Androgens
    ACTH secreted by the Pituitary gland acting on the Adrenal cortex
  26. 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency
    • Glucocorticoids and Mineralcorticoids are deficient, Androgens are over produced
    • Virilization
    • Hyperkalemia
    • Salt cravings
  27. 11-Hydroxylase deficiency
    • Adrenal Androgens are overproduced
    • Accumulating Deoxycorticosteroid acts as a Mineralocorticoid causing
    • Virilization
    • Hypokalemia
    • Edema
    • Hypertension
Card Set
Adrenal Hormones S2M1