1. Where do most Chinese live and why?
    In the eastern third because that is where the arable land is.
  2. Define East Asia?
    A region made up of China, Japan, and the Koreas was heavily influenced in the past by the civilization of China.
  3. Define ethnocentrism as it pertains to the Chinese in ancient times?
    They saw all other cultures as inferior to their own. They believed they were the center of the universe.
  4. What was the purpose of the 3 Schools of Thought?
    To create an orderly society
  5. Define Confucianism?
    Made by Confucius, his writings were called the Analects. It stressed the 5 relationships in which the superior sets an example for the inferior. It followed the Mandate of Heaven. It stressed Filial Piety or the belief that children MUST respect their elders. It stressed loyalty, courtesy, hard work, service and ECUCATION. The School of Thought was the most influence on China today.
  6. Define Taoism?
    Founded by philosopher Lao Zi. Emphasized the link between people and nature in order to establish an orderly society. They did not like rules. People should not interfere with nature. Good government has few rules and laws. They studied nature.
  7. Define Legalism?
    Believed that people act out of self-interest. A system of rewards and punishments would create an orderly society. Wanted harsh enforced laws.
  8. What were the goals the 3 schools of thought and Buddhism?
    To establish a peace and harmony within society.
  9. How did the teachings of Confucius influence the government in ancient China?
    He stressed education, learning and practice set men apart. This philosophy came to influence the civil service exam system (exam to work for the government).
  10. What became the most important people in ancient society?
  11. What was the most important value in traditional Chinese and Japanese societies?
    Family Loyalty
  12. Describe the Life of women before Communism?
    There were Inferior. They suffered beatings, slavery, foot binding, infanticide, couldnt divorce or own property, left birth family when married. Women gained respect as elders.
  13. Describe the Life of women during/after Communism?
    Communists have given women equality
  14. Define Chung Kuo or middle kingdom?
    • The Chinese belief that they were the center of the
    • universe.
  15. Where was the Earliest Chinese Civilization?
    Yellow River, 4,000 years ago
  16. Define The Great Wall?
    About 1500 miles of stone wall built as defense against invaders (begun over 2,000 years ago). Created by peasants under Shi Huangdi.
  17. Define Dynasty?
    Family of Rulers
  18. Define Shang Civilization
    Chinas first dynasty in about 2,000 BC
  19. Define Tang and Song Empires?
    Golden Age 618-1279 Chinas Renaissance, peaceful, economy prospered and arts flourished
  20. Define the Mongol conquest of China?
    Kubilai Khan invaded in 1279, only Mongols government officials, created the Yuan Dynasty, they created roads and new technology
  21. Define Chinas gifts to the world?
    paper, gunpowder, compass, printing, silk, porcelain, abacus, tea, paper money, wine, acupuncture
  22. What did European countries and Japan do to China in the 1800s?
    They divided it up into Spheres of Influence.
  23. How was dividing China into Spheres of Influence possible?
    • A.Weakness of the Qing dynasty due to corruption and backwardness
    • B.Military power of European nation after the Industrial Revolution
  24. Define Qing dynasty?
    Chinas last dynasty. Originally from Manchuria and invaded China in 1644.
  25. Define Opium War?
    British could not fight China. The British sell drugs to Chinese who become addicted and pay in silver. The government sinks Opium boats but must pay for them. Chinese were no match for British.
  26. Define Open Door Policy?
    U.S.A Policy in which Europeans follow, all nations have equal trade access to China. This policy failed.
  27. Define the Boxer Rebellion?
    The Boxer Rebellion was a result of the anger of many Chinese over the aggression of European Nations. They wanted to expel all foreigners. They raped and killed European missionaries.
  28. Who was Sun Yat-Sen?
    A doctor who was the 1st President of The Chinese Repbulic in 1911 (after Qing dynasty was overthrown),he helped to organize the Nationalist party and start a republic. He wanted Nationalism, democracy and livelihood.
  29. Why was Sun Yat-Sen unable to achieve his goals?
    Civil war broke out with Chinese warlords. Then the Communist Party was formed in 1921.
  30. What forced Mao and his followers on the Long March?
    Chiang Kai Shek and the Nationalist Army launched a campaign to destroy Mao & the Communists. It lasted a year, over 6,000 miles, and over 80,000 communists died. He was greatly outnumbered.
  31. Why did Mao and the Communists win the Civil War in 1949?
    He had the support of the peasants and the Nationalist army was very corrupt. The philosophy preached an end to the oppression of peasants. He wanted to end imperial powers.
  32. Why has the Communist party stayed in control?
    They are a strong dictatorship and have improved the lives of the Chinese people.
  33. Define the Little Red Book?
    Book with Quotations from Chairman Mao. Bible of the Chinese.
  34. Define Proletariat?
    Industrial working class- as defined by Karl Marx (predicted they would rise against ruling class)
  35. Define Propaganda?
    The spread of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause, used by Mao to spread Communist ideology.
  36. What did the Great Leap Forward in 1958 call for the Chinese to do?
    Make a super human effort to achieve modernization
  37. How did Mao try to achieve his goals in the Great Leap Forward?
    He divided China into communes where workers were assigned jobs. In return they got living supplies. Pushed China to build bridges, dams, irrigation systems and large scale farming.
  38. Why did the Great Leap Forward fail?
    Peasants resisted the system and sometimes killed crops. Not enough people worked on food but mostly schools and road. They had no innovative.
  39. What did Mao do to try to eliminate opposition to his policies in the 1960s?
    He instituted the Cultural Revolution.
  40. What were the effects of the Cultural Revolution in China?
    Created chaos, schools closed, production in factories slowed due to disuptes. Many were tortured or killed, ends with Maos death in 1976.
  41. Who was Maos successor?
    Deng Xiaoping
  42. What policy did Deng Xiaoping introduced?
    The Responsibility System.
  43. How did the Responsibility System differ from Maos systems?
    He stressed economic reform instead of the class struggle. It called for modernizing agriculture and industry, developing new science and technology and upgrading the army.
  44. What did the Responsibility System hope to Achieve?
    To make China self sufficient in food production and an increase in machinery use. Deng reformed the economy and modernized China.
  45. Describe Dengs open door policy towards trade with other nations?
    Deng ended Maos isolation policy. Encouraged foreign trade & sent Chinese students abroad to study. Set up Speacial Economic Zones. Farmers could make more profit.
  46. Describe what happened in Tiananmen Square in 1989?
    Educated people pressed for Democracctic reform with rallies. In Tinanmen square, the protestors were asked to leave. They didnt, so the government open-fired which killed and wounded people. They cracked down on pro-democracy leaders. The Beijing Massacre showed Chinas leaders would not allow any threat to communism. China has a poor human rights record.
  47. Describe Chinas population problem and their efforts to solve it?
    Largest population in the world, over 1 billion. The giant population is a threat to modernization. They encouraged late marriage. 1 child per family. It is KINDA successful.
  48. Define Three Gorges Dam?
    Building on the Yangtze River has caused relocation of millions of people and will cost billions of dollars. But it will control flooding and produce massive amounts of hydroelectric power.
  49. Define Tibet?
    Taken over by China in 1950. Buddhist area that wants to be free and independent.
  50. Define The Future of China?
    China is one of the worlds most rapidly developing countries. It has developed mineral & oil resources, and manufactures consumer goods. It has serious pollution problems as it industrializes.
Card Set
China Flashcards