1. how does the break down of bone affect kidney?
    • increased serum phosphate inhibits the 1-hydroxylase creating the very active form of vitamin D
    • -so PTH's action to increase phosphate excretion decreases the inhibition
  2. osteoperosis treatment Strategies
    • 1. exercise
    • 2. nutrition - vit d, calcium and phytoestrogens
    • 3. no smoking, >1alcohol/day, high caffeine is bad (supplanting ca+ containing drinks)
    • 4. reduce falls
    • 5. pharmacologic intervention
  3. what female ovary abnormality would cause an oversecretion of FSH?
    diminished ovarian reserve...not responding well to FSH
  4. release of all exported protein hormones depends on what?
  5. Age related GnRH
    prior to puberty, sensitivity to feedback inhibition by gonadal steroids is high, so low GnRH
  6. LH and HCG share what?
    same beta subunit, which is recognized by the same receptor.
  7. Sertoli cells:
    • 1. nourish germ cells
    • 2. blood-testes barrier
    • 3. produce estrogen
    • 4. produce inhibin
    • 5. produce androgen binding protein and other proteins for spermatogenesis
    • 6. phagocytose cytoplasm and bad germ cells
  8. function of androgen binding protein?
    to maintain high local concentration of testosterone in lumen of semeniferous tubules
  9. spermatocele vs hydrocele
    • spermatocele: cystic enlargement of the efferent ducts or ducts of rete testes
    • hydrocele: cystic enlargement of processus vaginalis

    differentiated by presence of sperm
  10. epididymitis
    inflamation of epididymus, common cause of male infertility and usually due to gonarrhea
  11. what signals next ovulation cycle?
    what prevents this signal if implantation is a go?
    • -rise in FSH signals next ovulation cycle
    • -progesterone from rescued corpus luteum inhibits this rise of FSH signal
  12. what hormones produces gestational diabetes?
    -GH effect of human placental lactogen (HPL)
  13. what is hormone is secreted by the trophoblast?
  14. effects of progesterone withdrawal during parturition?
    • loss of quieting influence:
    • -uterine contractility,
    • -sensitized to oxytocin
    • unimpedence of estrogen:
    • -relaxin
    • -prostaglandins (contracility and vascular changes)
  15. How does oxytocin work during parturition?
    • 1. neuroendocrine refliex stimulated by stretching of uterus and cervix
    • 2. brings on a round of contractions
    • 3. positive feedback for even stronger subsequent round
  16. effect of stress on cortisol?
    • stress can override neg inhibition from a high level of cortisol so that ACTH continues to flow from the ant. pituitary.
    • --communication from higher brian centers raises set point
  17. how to diagnose cushing's?
    using exogenous cortisol to determine that the set point for ACTH is much higher than normal.
  18. cortisol's effects?
    • protein: breakdown
    • fat: mobilize and center
    • circ system: vascular intergrity and responsiveness
    • kidneys: keeps GFR normal
    • immuned system: blocks inflammatory and immunes responses
  19. epi vs nor?
    • most of nor is a neurotransmitter in rest of body, on 20% is made in adrenal medulla
    • -100% of epi is made there
  20. tumor of adrenal medulla?
  21. thyroid hormone
    • 1. increases oxidative metabolism
    • 2. tissue maturation
    • 3. normal growth and maturation
    • 4. thermoregulation**--it heats you up
  22. hormones essential for life
    • cortisol
    • aldosterone
    • PTH
  23. why opthalmopathy with grave's disease?
    what is another symptom?
    • an antigen in orbital tissues cross reacts with the thyroid. so it gets inflamed
    • --goiter (goiter and eye symptoms are diagnostic)
  24. nuclei in pineal body?
    pinealocyte is round, while glial cells are elongated
  25. hormones that can cause diabetes?
    besides insulin, catecholamins and cortisol
  26. point of potassium in DKA
    try to increase PH and Na through exchange in kidney
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