History ID Terms II

  1. Otto von Bismarck
    • WHO: German political leader under Kaiser William I, "Iron Chancellor"
    • WHAT: unified Germany
    • WHERE: Germany
    • WHEN: ~1860
    • WHY: instrumental in the unification of Germany and est. it as a nation/empire for the first time; did this thru initiating several strategic wars that regain territory and nationalisim for Germans
  2. Camillo Cavour
    • WHO: prime minister of Italy
    • WHAT: attempts a unified Italy
    • WHERE: Italy
    • WHEN: ~1850
    • WHY: liberal who promoted nationalism to try to unify Italy; wanted to reduce role of Church but Church condemns liberalism/nationalism and made unity difficult; gave up provinces to France and Austria
  3. Nationalism
    • WHO: citizens and leaders of a nation
    • WHAT: pride in one's country
    • WHERE: Europe
    • WHEN: 1800s - modern
    • WHY: powerful catalyst for modern conflict; I can rattle on about that for a while
  4. Charles Darwin
    • WHO: scientist / naturalist
    • WHAT: est. theory of natural selection and adaptation
    • WHEN: ~1860
    • WHERE: England
    • WHY: est. a new thought in science that caused much controversy b/c it challenged traditional beliefs; his theories were applied beyond nature to human society (ie. Social Darwinism - survival of the fittest)
  5. Humanism
    • WHO: Petrarch (father of)
    • WHAT: study of nonreligious things
    • WHERE: Italy and spread
    • WHEN: 1300s
    • WHY: reflected a shift in thought that previously had been dominated by religious subject matter. Opened up avenues to explore art, literature and science for its own sake and to focus more on man than God
  6. Karl Marx
    • WHO: socialist philosopher and economist
    • WHAT: considered father of communism
    • WHERE: Germany
    • WHEN: 1818 - 1883
    • WHY: saw the development of a classless society as the clash between classes would ultimately lead to an overthrow of capitalism and usher in socialism, getting rid of the need for state control as ppl would not have to remain under oppression
  7. "White Man's Burden"
    • WHO: progressive countries
    • WHAT: duty to westernize the world
    • WHERE: W. Europe and NA
    • WHEN: ~1900
    • WHY: connects with imperialism (rule of one ppl over another) and social darwinism (natural for more superior to conquer less superior); the idea that progression must be shared with others and progressive countries have a responsibility to bring benefits of westernization to the rest of the world
  8. Imperialism
    • WHO: progressive countries
    • WHAT: rule of one ppl over another
    • WHERE: Europe and NA
    • WHEN: 1800s - 1900s
    • WHY: expansion, "bigger" vs. "lesser", nationalism, pride - resulted in emigration (ppl leave their country for its colonies), competition to be the "biggest" (economically, militarily, territorily, etc), leads to modernism
  9. Friedrich Nietzsche
    • WHO: German philosopher
    • WHAT: glorification of irrational
    • WHERE: Germany
    • WHEN: 1844 - 1900
    • WHY: anti-progression, denounced social reform, gov, and voting, saw it all as hindering a higher existence; no God, absurd world; teachings became open to misinterpretation and distortion which lead to radical regimes like the Nazis
  10. Quanta
    • WHO: Max Planck
    • WHAT: packets of energy
    • WHERE: Germany
    • WHEN: 1900
    • WHY: revolutionized classical physics and opened the door for quantum physics and advancements made by Einstein later on
  11. Behaviorism
    • WHO: John Watson
    • WHAT:
    • WHERE: US
    • WHEN: early 1900s
    • WHY: psychology shifts from study of conscious/unconscious mind to science of objective observation
  12. Impressionism
    • WHO: Monet
    • WHAT: an art style
    • WHERE: Europe (Paris)
    • WHEN: 19th century
    • WHY: radical shift from classical art into modern, greater focus on light rather than form and realism, represented a growing appeal for nonrational in life
  13. Vincent Van Gogh
    • WHO: a Dutch painter
    • WHAT: heavy influence on modern art
    • WHERE: Netherlands
    • WHEN: 1853 -1890
    • WHY: uhg I dont know
  14. Battle of the Somme
    • WHO: France and Britain vs. Germany
    • WHAT: bloodiest battle in WWI
    • WHERE: France, Somme River
    • WHEN: july 1916
    • WHY: offensive of the Entente which served to prove Britian's strength wasn't only in their navy, goal was to stress the distribution of the German forces, no real victor except loss of life, reinforced the futility of trench warfare
  15. HMS Dreadnought
    • WHO: British
    • WHAT: naval battleship
    • WHERE: Britain
    • WHEN: 1906
    • WHY: revolutionized naval warfare, first battleship to be steam powered and have uniform weapons, sparked naval arms buildup among other nations
  16. Schlieffen Plan
    • WHO: General von Schlieffen
    • WHAT: battle plans
    • WHERE: Germany
    • WHEN: ~1900
    • WHY: plans that were drawn up as preparation for a war that wasn't even raging yet, added to the tensions and anxiety to strike, relied on many underestimation of their foes which lead to failure
  17. Black Hand Movement
    • WHO: founded by Captain Dimitrijevic "Apis"
    • WHAT: Serbian movement to be freed from Austro-Hungarian control
    • WHERE: Serbia
    • WHEN: 1903
    • WHY: movement to liberate Serbs under foreign rule and and the creation of an independent kingdom of Serbia apart from Austria-Hungary, dude who assisnated Franz Ferdinand was in Black Hand
  18. Totalitariansim
    • WHO: Lenin, Stalin, Hitler
    • WHAT: a gov not bound by law
    • WHERE: Russia
    • WHEN: early 1900s
    • WHY: allowed for governments to rule in absolute terms, strip citizens of their rights, and build a foundation for acts like Red Terror in Russia, Nazi regime & Holocaust
  19. Lebensraum
    • WHO: Germans
    • WHAT: a term meaning "breathing space"
    • WHERE: Germany
    • WHEN: 1930s
    • WHY: German idea that they need more land to reach their full potential as the master race; German justification for expanding across Europe that lead to WWII
  20. Solidarity
    • WHO:
    • WHAT:
    • WHERE:
    • WHEN:
    • WHY:
  21. Lenin
    • WHO: political socialist
    • WHAT: est totalitarian gov
    • WHERE: Russia
    • WHEN: 1917
    • WHY: pulls Russia out of WWI and throws it into civil war; but also helped economic recovery with New Economic Program that allowed people to keep some of what they worked for, showing adaptability of totalitarian gov
  22. White Army
    • WHO: Kerensky
    • WHAT: Army created to battle Bolsheviks
    • WHERE: Russia
    • WHEN: ~1918
    • WHY: wanted democracy restored, Lenin responds with Red Army lead by Trotsky and eventual Red Terror violence against all opposition
  23. Blitzkrieg
    • WHO: Germans
    • WHAT: "lightning war", rapid advance and conquer
    • WHERE: Europe
    • WHEN: WWII
    • WHY: new battle strategy to avoid entrenchment of WWI, coordination between air and tank to advance quickly, allowed Germany to take insane amounts of land
  24. Operation Barbarossa
    • WHO: Germany vs. Russia
    • WHAT: Surprise attack on Russia
    • WHERE: Germany/Russia
    • WHEN: 1941
    • WHY: unable to make progress against Britain so to support totalitarian character of constantly moving, Hitler targeted Russia, gained lots of land but became too spread out and winter forced retreat; beginning of end of Germany
  25. Holocaust
    • WHO: German vs. Jews
    • WHAT: extermination of races deemed degerate by Hitler
    • WHERE: Europe
    • WHEN: WWII
    • WHY: largest massacre in history, took ideas like social darwinism and nationalism to extreme
  26. DDay
    • WHO: Allies vs. Axis
    • WHAT: arrival of Allies in Europe
    • WHERE: Normandy, France
    • WHEN: 1944
    • WHY: turned the tide of war as Allies began pushing back Germany
Card Set
History ID Terms II
Napoleon through WWII