Nutrition Chapter 4

  1. Carbohydrates
    • compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides. Most, but not all, carbohydates have a ratio of one carbon molecule to one water molecule. CH2O
    • Carbo=carbon C
    • hydrate=with water H2O
  2. Simple Carbohydrates
    AKA:sugars- monosaccharides and disaccharides
  3. Complex carbohydrates(starches and fibers)
    polysaccharides composed of straight or branced chains of monosaccharides.
  4. Monosaccharides
    carbohydrates of the general formula CnH2nOn that typically form a single ring. Mono=one Saccharide=sugar
  5. Glucose
    a monosaccharide, sometimes known as blood sugar or dextrose.
  6. Fructose
    a monosaccharide, sometimes known as fruit sugar or levulose. Fructose is found abundantly in fruits, honey, and saps.
  7. Galactose
    a monosaccharide, part of the disaccharide lactose
  8. Disaccharides
    pairs of monosaccharides linked together. Di=2
  9. Condensation
    chemical reaction in which two reactants combine to yeild a larger product
  10. Maltose
    a disaccharide composed of two glucose units, sometimes known as malt sugar.
  11. Sucrose
    a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose, commonly known as table sugar, beet wugar, or cane sugar. Sucrose also occurs in many fruits and some vegetables and grains.
  12. lactose
    a disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose, commonly known as milk sugar
  13. Polysaccharides
    compounds composed of many monosaccharides linked together. an intermediate string of three to ten monosaccharides is an oligosaccharide. Poly=many Oligo=few
  14. Glycogen
    an animal polysaccharide composed of glucose, manufactured and stored in the liver and muscles as a storage form of glucose. glycogen is not sgnificant food source of carbohydrate and is not counted as one of the complex carbohydrates in foods.

    • glyco=glucose
    • gen=gives rise to
  15. Starches
    plant polysaccharides composed of glucose.
  16. Dietary Fibers
    in plant foods, the nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by GI tract bacteria. Dietary fibers include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pecins, gums, and mucilages and the nonpolysaccharides lignins, cutins, and tannins.
  17. Souble Fibers
    indigestible food components that dissolve in water to form a gel. An example is pectin from fruit, which is used to thicken jellies.
  18. Viscous
    a gel like consistency
  19. Fermentable
    the extendt to which bacteria in the GI tract can break down fibers to fragments that the body can use.
  20. Insoluble Fibers
    indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water. Examples include the tough, fibrous structures found in the strings of celery and the skins of corn kernels.
  21. Resistant Starches
    starches that escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine of healthy people
  22. Phytic Acid
    a nonnutrient component of plant seeds also called phytate. Phytic acid occurs in the husks of grains, legumes, and seeds and is paable of binding minerals such as zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium,and copper in insoluble complexes in the intestine, which the body excretes unused.
  23. Amylase
    an enzyme that hydolyzes amylose. Amylase is a carbohydrase, an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates.
  24. Satiety
    the feeling of fullness and satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the next meal. Satiety determines how much times passes between meals
  25. Maltase
    an enzymetht hydrolyzes maltose
  26. sucrase
    an enzyme tha hydrolyzes sucrose
  27. Lactase
    an enzyme that hydrolyzses lactose
  28. Lactose Intolerance
    a condition that results from inability to digest the milk sugar lactose, characterized by bloating, gas, abdominal discomfor, and diarrhea. Lactose inteolerance differs from milk allergy, which is caused by an immune reaction to the protein in milk.
  29. Lactase Deficiency
    a lack of the enzyme required to digest the disaccharide lactose into is component monosaccharides glucose and galactose.
  30. kefir
    a fermented milk created by adding lactobacillus acidophilus and other bacteria that break down lactose to glucose and galactose, producing a sweet, lactose free product.
  31. Gluconeogenesis
    the making of glucose from a noncarbohydrate source
  32. Protein Sparing action
    the action of carbohydrate and fat in providing energy that allows protein to be used for other purposes
  33. Ketone Bodies
    the product of the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cells.
  34. Ketosis
    an undesirably high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and urine.
  35. Acid Base Balance
    the equilibrium in the body between acid and base concentrations
  36. Insulin
    a hormone secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to increased blood glucose concentration. The primary role of insulin is to control the transport of glucose from the bloodstream into the muscle and fat cells.
  37. Glucagon
    a hormone that is secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to low blood glucose concentration and elicits release of glucose from liver glycogen stores.
  38. Epinephrine
    a hormone of the adrenal gland that modulates the stress response, formerly called adrenaline. When administered by injection, epinephrine counteracts anaphylactic shock by opening the airways and maintaining heartbeat and blood pressure.
  39. Diabetes
    a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, usually resulting from insufficient or ineffective insulin.
  40. Type 1 diabetes
    the less common type of diabetes in which the pancreas fails to produce insulin.
  41. Type 2 diabetes
    the more common type of diabetes in which the cells fail to respond to insulin.
  42. Hypogycemia
    an abnormally low blood glucose concentration.
  43. glycemic Response
    the extent to which a food raises the blood glucose concenration and elicits an insulin response.
  44. Glycemic Index
    a method of classifying foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose.
  45. Added Sugars
    sugars and syrups used as an ingredient in the processing and preparation of foods such as breads, cakes, beverages, jellies and ice cream as well as sugars eaten separately or added to foods at the table
  46. Dental Caries
    decay of teeth Caries=rottenness
  47. Dental Plaque
    a gummy mass of bacteria that grows on teeth and can lead to dental caries and gum disease.
  48. Serotonin
    a neurotransmitter important in sleep regulation, appetite control, intestinal motiltiy, obsessive compulsive behaviorsand mood disorders
Card Set
Nutrition Chapter 4
Key terms from chapter 4