Pineal Gland S3M1

  1. When does the pineal gland begin development
    10th week
  2. Dorsal diverticulum (epiphysis)
    An out-pocketing of the Diencephalon that initiates the formation of the Pineal gland
  3. The Pineal recess communicates with
    The third ventricle
  4. What are the two cell types of the pineal gland derived from
    Primordial neuroepithelial cells
  5. What are the two types of cells in the Pineal gland
    • Pinealocytes
    • Glial like interstitial cells
  6. Connective tissue septa in the pineal gland is formed by
    The envelopment of the Pineal gland by the meninges
  7. What type of organ is the Pineal gland
    Neuroendocrine organ
  8. Pinealocytes
    These are organized in cords and clusters in the Pineal gland and secrete primarily melatonin
  9. Melatonin is synthesized by
    The conversion of Tryptophan into Serotonin and then to Melatonin
  10. Melatonin is highest and lowest when
    Highest at night, lowest in the day
  11. Corpora arenacea
    "Brain sand" Calcified extracellular concretions made of CaPO4 and CaCO3
  12. Corpora arenacea appear when, and have what clinical feature
    • They appear in early childhood and increase in size with age
    • They are a good landmark in brain x-rays and scans
  13. Pinealocytes have what that lies near capillaries
    One or two long cytoplasmic processes terminating near capillaries
  14. The cytoplasm of the Pinealocytes are abundant with
  15. Exposure to light causes a rapid decrease in what substance in the pineal gland, with what effect
    Rapid decrease in N-acetyltransferase which lowers the melatonin synthesis (Only found in the pineal gland)
  16. 5-Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase
    • Only found in the Pineal gland
    • Converts serotonin to melatonin when light is contacting the eyes
  17. Melatonin may stimulate the release of Growth hormone by
    Inhibiting Somatostatin release
  18. What kind of nerve fibers synapse on pinealocytes
    • Sympathetic Post ganglionic axons that lose the myelin sheath upon entering the Pineal gland
    • They release Norepinephrine
  19. Seasonal Affected Disorder (SAD)
    This is a type of depression that affects some people in the winter that is corrected when exposed to bright light
  20. Precocious puberty can be caused by
    A tumor in the Pineal gand
Card Set
Pineal Gland S3M1
Micro Anatomy