Bio Exam 1.txt

  1. what does volume determine in the cell?
    chemical activity in the cell per unit time
  2. what does surface area determine in the cell?
    amount of substances that can pass the cell boundary per unit time
  3. pili
    fur like structure on prokaryotes that help them adhere to one another
  4. golgi apparatus
    • receives proteins from RER
    • concentrates, packages and sorts them
    • in plants- polysaccharides for cell walls synthesized in golgi
  5. vacuoles
    • only in plant cells and some protists
    • store waste products and toxic compounds
    • provide structure for plant cells
    • water enters by osmosis creates turgor pressure
  6. cytoskeleton components
    • microtubules
    • microfilaments-actin
    • intermediate filaments
  7. cocci
    spherical prokaryote shape
  8. bacilli
    rod prokaryote shape
  9. helix
    spiral or helical prokaryote shape
  10. spirochetes
    • type of prokaryote
    • gram negative
    • motile
    • chemoheterotroph
    • unique axial filaments (flagella) that rotate
    • human parasites: syphils, lyme disease
    • others free living
  11. chlamydias
    • type of prokaryote
    • small
    • gram negative cocci
    • parasites in cells of other organisms
    • STDs and pnuemonia
  12. high-gc gram positives
    • type of prokaryote
    • more G-C pairs than A-T pairs in DNA
    • elaborate branching filaments
    • reproduce by spores at the tips of filaments
    • most antibiotics from this group
  13. low-GC gram positives
    • type of prokaryote
    • produce tough endospores for harsh conditions
    • smallest free living cells
    • mycoplasms with no cell wall
  14. cyanobacteria
    • type of prokaryote
    • photoautotroph with chlorophyll
    • fix nitrogen
    • create eukaryote chloroplasts
    • nitrogen fixation
  15. proteobacteria
    • type of prokaryote
    • largest group with large diversity of metabolic phenotypes
    • common ancestor was photoautotrophic
    • nitrogen fixing genera
    • e. coli
  16. archaea
    • type of prokaryote
    • extreme environments
    • also in common environments
    • lack peptidoglycan in cell wall
    • distinctive lipids in cell membranes
  17. crenarcheota
    • type of prokaryote
    • type of archea
    • thermophilic
    • acidophilic
  18. euryarcheota
    • type of prokaryote
    • type of archea
    • methanogens-produce methane from CO2
    • obligate anaerobes
    • live in guts of grazing animals, temites and cockroaches
Card Set
Bio Exam 1.txt
Bio Exam 1