1. first developed in the 20th century. prior to their development, one child in 3 was expected to die of an infectious deisease before the age of 5.
  2. the goal of antimicrobial chemotherapy is
    to admisister a drug to an infected person that kills the infectious agent without harming the host's cells.
  3. the greatest numbers of antibiotics are derived from the bacteria in the genera:
    • streptomyces
    • bacillus
    • penicillin (mold)
    • cephalosporins
  4. mechanisms of drug action:
    • inhibition of cell wall synthesis
    • nucleic acid structure and function
    • protein synthesis
    • interference with cell membrane structure or function
  5. drugs that target cell wall synthesis cause:
    cause cells to develop weak points at growth sites causeing the cell to become osmotically fragile
  6. antimicrobial drugs that affect nucleic acid synthesis include:
    • chloroquine (antimalarial)
    • azidothymindine (inserts in the viral nucleic acid and blocks further replication)
  7. antimicrobial drugs that block prothein synthesis usually react with:
    ribosome-RNA complex
  8. antimicrobials against these types of cells are selective because the structure of the ribosomes differs from that in bacteria cells
  9. this target the 30S subunit, leading to abnormal proteins
  10. this block the attachment of tRNA and effectively stop further protein synthesis
  11. antimicrobial drugs that disrupt cell membrane function by interacting with this and distorting the cell surface and causing leakage of proteins and nitrogen bases
  12. drugs that inhibit folic acid synthesis do so by mimicking the normal substrate of an enzyme in a process known as
    competitive inhibition
  13. sulfonamides and trimethoprim have this effect on folic acid synthesis in bacteria
    synergistic effect
  14. this group of antibiotics is a large diverse group of compounds that includes the natural form G and V
  15. these type of drugs derived from penicillin include ampicillin, carbenicllin and amoxicillin
    semisynthetic drugs
  16. many bacteria produce enzymes such as penicillinases or beta-lactamases that are capable of destroying this
    the beta lactam ring of penicillin
  17. this group of drugs were first isolated from the mold Cephalosporium acremonium.
  18. cephalosporin is a broad spectrum antibiotic that are resistant to most penicillinases which
    cause fewer allergic reactions than PCN
  19. this is a beta-lactam antibiotic which is a broad-spectrum drug that can be used for infections with aerobic and anaerobic pathogens
  20. drugs that target cell wall include:
    • bacitracin (major ingredient to Neosporin)
    • Isoniazid (used to treat TB)
    • Vancomycin (treat MRSA)
  21. drugs that target protein synthesis:
    • aminoglycosides (gentamicin, streptomycin)
    • Tetracyclines
  22. this group of drugs blocks protein synthesis and bind to ribosomes, which make it a broad-spectrum antibiotic (treats RMSF, Mycoplasma pna and cholera)
  23. this group drug targets protein synthesis and can cause aplastic anemia
  24. this group of drugs target protein synthesis and are macrolide antibiotics
    • erythromycin
    • clindamycin
  25. this is a combined antibiotic that is effective against Staphylococcus and Enterococcus
    Synericd drugs
  26. this antibiotic is used to treat infections caused by MRSA and VRE
  27. these antibacterial drugs target folic acid synthesis
    • sulfonamides
    • trimethoprim
    • sulfones
  28. antibacterial drugs that targe DNA and RNA include the fluoroquinolones:
    • norfloxin
    • ciprofloxin
  29. these are antibacterial drugs that targe cell membranes which are produced by Bacillus plymyxa and have a tendency to be toxic
  30. agents used to treat fungal infections include the Polyenes as:
    • Amphotericin B
    • Griseofulvin (treat dermatophyte infections as athlete's foot)
    • Azoles (includes Ketoconazole and fluconazole)
    • Flucytosine (treat cutaneous mycoses)
  31. antimalarial drugs are based on these and include choloquine and primaquine
  32. antihelminthic drug therapy includes these drugs which are broad-spectrum antiparasitic drugs used in several roundworm intestinal infestations
    • mebendazole
    • thiabendazole
  33. antiviral chemotherapeutic drugs target virus:
    penetration into the host cell
  34. antiviral chemotherapeutic drugs blocks the transcription and translation of viral molecules and preventing this:
    maturation of viral particles
  35. Prevents the attachment of HIV to its cellular receptor
  36. this drug blocks DNA synthesis in the herpes viruses
  37. these inhibitors include AZT which incorporates itself into the growing DNA chain of HIV and terminates synthesis
    reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  38. drug resistance can develop in bacter after either:
    • spontaneous mutuation
    • new genes are acquired via transfer from another species
  39. specific mechanisms of drug resistance in bacteria include:
    • synthesis of new enzymes
    • decreased permeability of drug in the bacterium
    • binding sites for the drug are decreased in number or affinity
    • and shutdown of an affected metabolic pathway
  40. side effects of drugs includes:
    • toxicity to organs
    • allergic responses to drugs
    • and suppression and alteration of the microbiota by antimicrobials
Card Set
chapt 12