1. Describe Swartz-Barter Syndrome
    • Inappropriate ADH secretion
    • Absent of normal stimuli
  2. Causes of Inappropriate ADH secretion
    • Hypothalamic inpairment causing a change in set point of ADH release
    • Faulty stimuli from peripheral volume receptors (left atrium)
    • Secretion of ADH by non-hypothalamic tissue
    • Certain drugs which enhance ADH effect (some chemotherapeutic agents)
  3. What is the principle consequence of excess ADH and how does it happen?

    • With increased water conservation, glomerular filtration is increased
    • Renin is suppressed, decreasing aldosterone, decreasing sodium reabsorption
    • ANH secretion is stiulated, decreasing sodium reabsorption
  4. What are the symptoms of hyponatremia
    • Headaches
    • Drowsines/weakness
    • Stupor
    • Coma
    • Seizures
  5. What are the roles of oxytocin
    • Expulsion of the fetus and placenta
    • Milk ejection (nipple stimulation leads to oxytocin release, which contracts myometrium)
  6. What are the roles of Prolactin?
    • Lactogenesis
    • Mother/baby orientation (CNS)
  7. What are the endocrine functions of the hypothalamus?
    • Cardiovascular regulation
    • Thermoregulation
    • Food intake
    • Sleep/wake/circadiam
    • Emotionality
    • Osmoregulation
    • Respiration regulation
    • Pituitary regulation
  8. What vascularly connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary?
    • Hypophyseal Portal System
    • Allows hypothalamic hormones to control anterior pituitary function
  9. What are the hypothalamic hormones?
    • Thyrotropin Releaseing Hormone (TRH)
    • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
    • Somatostatin/tropin Release Inhibiting Factor (SRIF)
    • Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GRH)
    • Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)
    • Prolactin Inhibiting Factors
    • Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH)
    • Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Releasing Factor
    • Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Inhibiting Hormone
  10. Action of Thyropropin Releasing Hormone
    • Increase TSH
    • Increase Prolactin
  11. Action of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
    • Increase LH
    • Increase FSH
  12. Action of Somatostatin/tropin Release Inhibiting Factor
    • Decrease GH
    • Decrease TSH
  13. Action of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone
    • Increase ACTH
    • Increase B-END
    • Increase B-LPH
  14. Characteristics of hypothalamic hormones
    • High potency
    • Short biologic half life
    • Storage in axon terminals at primary capillary plexus
  15. How might antipsychotic drugs which block dopamine receptors influence endocrine function
    Cause hyperprolactinemia
  16. Define Neuroendocrine Transducer
    Neuron that secretes hypothalamic hormone in response to electical signal
  17. Short loop negative feedback
    Pituitary hormone acts on brain to inhibit its own secretion
  18. Long loop negative feedback
    Hormone produced by target gland inhibits pituitary hormone release
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