1. Why is the root tip a good
    source for cells in mitosis rather than cells from a stem or a leaf?
    It's where the cells are actively growing and mitosis is always happening.
  2. Compare the end products of
    mitosis, spermatogenesis, and oogenesis.
    • Mitosis: 2 daughter cells
    • Spermatogenesis: sperm production
    • oogenesis: egg cell production
  3. What are Mendel’s Laws?
    • Law of segregation: alleles separate into gametes during mitosis
    • Law of independent assortment: one trait does not influence the transmission of alleles for another trait
  4. What is a monohybrid cross? What genotypic and phenotypic ratios
    are expected in a monohybrid cross?
    YY/Yy = yellow
    • Monohybrid: YY and yy
    • Result: all Yy; all yellow
  5. What is a dihybrid cross?
    shows how two traits are passed from parent to offspring (big punnett square for 2 traits)
  6. What is unusual about
    incomplete dominance?
    • neither phenotypes are dominant and they mix.
    • Ex: red + white = pink
  7. Blood type is an unusual
    genetic condition, what is unusual about this trait and its alleles?
    • IA = A
    • IB = B
    • Ii = O
    • IAIB = AB
  8. What are restriction
    enzymes, where do they come from, and what are they used for in science and
    They cut specific DNA sequences from a nucleotide that are foreign to the cell and can be used to identify someone (like in a crime) or to stop a viral infection.
  9. Do restriction enzymes cut
    at specific DNA sequences or random DNA sequences?
  10. What is RFLP?
    Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism is used to identify individuals based on differences in nucleotide sequences
  11. How is DNA cut up to
    produce fragments with specific characteristics? How can these fragments be
    used to identify a potential criminal suspect?
    With a restriction enzyme; they can be used in Agarose Gel Electrophoresis to create a banding pattern unique to that individual
  12. To what end of the
    electrophoresis chamber did the dye samples run? Why? What about the DNA samples?
    • Negative because the dye is positive.
    • DNA went to positive because it's negatively charged.
  13. How does the frequency of a
    particular phenotype in a population vary with conditions in the environment?
    The more suitable phenotype will prevail in the right conditions.
  14. How did Darwin and Wallace
    contribute to evolution?
    research on the Galapagos Islands
  15. How did seed color contribute
    to their rate of their recovery?
    How would seed color contribute to the reproductive success
    of a plant?
    Colors that stood out were easy to get.

    A color that stands out will have a hard time reproducing because it keeps getting eaten.
  16. How do the sizes of
    Galapagos Island finch beaks vary with changes in climate?
    • Less rain = bigger seeds = bigger beaks
    • More rain = smaller seeds = smaller beaks
  17. Microevolution vs. Macroevolution
    • Micro: change in gene frequencies within one species over time
    • Macro: large-scale evolutionary change, such as formation of a new species
  18. Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium
    • Gradualism: slowly changing over many generations before a new species occurs
    • Punctuated equilibrium: long periods of stable populations with sudden changes/new species
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