What charges are at the cathode and anode end of the x-ray machine?
- Cathode = negative
- Anode = positive
Why is tungsten used in x-ray machines?
- 1) High melting point
- 2) high atomic number for better picture
T/F: X-rays are waves and particles?
What happens to wavelength and frequency as the energy of the x-ray increases?
- wavelength: decreases
- frequency: increases
What do low, moderate, and high x-rays interact with? Which is most common?
- Low: entire atom
- Moderate: electrons
- High: nuclei
- ** Moderate is most common
How much x-ray is lost due to heat?
What happens to other 1% of x-ray not lost to heat?
- 10% = characteristic (deflected)
- 90% = Bremsstrahlung, braking radiation
Where do the characteristic and Bremsstrahlung interactionc occur?
What are 3 rxns of x-rays after leaving anode and coming into contact with the body?
- 1) non-attenuating
- 2) absorbed
- 3) scattered
Name the two important diagnostic x-ray interactions?
- 1) Comptom effect: scattering of electrons
- 2) Photelectric effect: making the picture via absorption
What does a Compton effect photon interact with?
Outer shell electrons
kVp effects on Compton and Photelectric effects?
- kVP increases = compton increases (very fuzzy)
- kVp decreases = Photoelectric increases (dangerous)
- ***a common ground must be established for a safe and effective x-ray
What does photoelectric effect come in contact with?
absorbed in inner shell electrons
Which type of material interacts more with the photoelectric effect, bone or skin? Why?
Bone b/c of higher density
What color is a radiopaque and radiolucent x-ray?
- Radiopaque: white
- Radiolucent: black
What is kVp?
Kilovolt potential: quality of x-ray, can change the miliamp number causing it to drop
What is mAs?
Miliamps per second: quantity of x-rays (decreases with high kVp)
What is the Anode Heel effect?
higher x-ray intensity at cathode (-) end than anode (+) end so you want larger structures placed by cathode
What happens to the anode heel effect as the anode angle decreases?
What safety feature is used to reduce scatter radiation?
T/F: Low ratio grids are better at picking up scatter radiation
F, high ratio grids are more effective
What safety feature is used to reduce x-ray amounts to the patient?
2 filters used in podiatry and their mm Al equivalents?
- 1) Inherent 1.5mm Al
- 2) Added 1.0mm Al
- Total 2.5mm Al
What safety feature is used to reduce the does of x-ray needed?
How many screens are used in podiatry?
Name the five steps of conventional x-ray making?
- wash and dry
- temp and time
What plays the highest role on image reception and exposure?
- increase kVp = decrease contrast (long scale)
- Decrease kVp = increase contrast (short scale)
Why is exposure time decreased during x-rays?
Avoid blurriness from patient movement
15% rule of kVp?
15% increase in kVp decrease mAs by 2 (vice-a-versa as well)
Common SID measurement?
Inverse square law of x-rays
- Radiation intensity inversely proportional to square of distance from source
- ** Smaller distance = greater intensity
- ** larger distance = less intensity
T/F SID affects quality of x-ray beam
common focal spot size?
T/F kVp should be change in increments of 2?
F, increments of 5