1. Pronatation of the foot is caused by = and you will see this by
    • Dorsi Extension - Talo Crual - Distal tibial will be lower
    • Abduction - Transverse Tarsal - Will see more lateral toes
    • Eversion - Sub Talar - Will see Calcaneal Valgus
  2. Coupled motion of Subtalar Eversion will cause
    • Internal rotation of the tibia
  3. Internal tibial rotation will cause what 3 movements at the knee
    • Valgus Strain - medial knee pain/ache
    • Internal rotation of the Femur
    • Flexion
  4. Internal rotation of the tibia and femur will cause strain on which structures
    • Collateral Ligaments
    • Cruciate Ligaments
    • Menisci
    • Patella
  5. Internal femoral rotation will cause what coupled motions
    • Internal rotation to Tibia
    • Subtalar EVERSION
    • Hip ADDuction
    • ANTERIORISATION of innominate
    • INERIORISE acetabulum
  6. A dropped medial longitudinal arch will normally present with
    • Fatigued Tibilas Anterior
    • Over activity of Ext Hallicus Longus and Ext Digitorum Longus
  7. What are the 4 main stages of walking gait
    • Heel Strike
    • Foot Flat
    • Mid-stance
    • Toe off
  8. What 3 key points happen when heel striking during gait
    • Weight is absorbed into CALCANEUM
    • Foot extensors (tib anterior, extensor hallicus/digitorum longus contract
    • Talocrual joint is dorsi flexed and in a closed pack postion
  9. What 3 key points happen at foot flat during gait
    • ECCENTRIC contraction of the DORSI EXTENSORS, allowing PLANTAR FLEXION
    • Decelartion of weight through Fibula and Interoseus membrane
    • Weight is distributed along lateral aspect to 5th metatarsal
  10. 2 key points of midstance phase during gait
    • COP moves MEDIALLY to head of 1st metatarsal as pelvis prepares for contralateral HEEL STRIKE
    • Internal Roatation of FEMUR & TIBIA
  11. Supination twist mechanism happens at what joint
    • Occurs at Transverse Tarsal joint (TTJ) between the
    • Talus
    • Calcaneum
    • Cuboid
    • Navicular
  12. The aim of the supination twist mechanism is to
    • allow independent movement between the Hind foot and Mid Foot
    • !!!! calcaneum DOESNT dictate movement of mid foot!!!
  13. Supination twist mechanism is found in which stage of the gait cycle
    Mid stance
  14. Coupled motion between the Sub Talar (ST) and transverse tarsal
    • ST everts or pronates = TT supinate
    • ST inverts or supinate = TT pronates
  15. Push off phase during the gait cycle consists of
    • Toes extend at MTP, Plantar Aponeurosis creates a TIE BEAM accentuating the Medial Longitudunal Arch
    • Gastroc, soleus and plantaris contract
    • Phlanges are flexed - final propulsion
  16. Coupled motion with cuneiforms and their corresponding MTJ depend on which joint
  17. Subtalar eversion/prontation forces the medial rays into
  18. Subtalar eversion/prontation forces the lateral rays into
  19. Subtalar inversion/supination forces the medial rays into
  20. Subtalar inversion/supination forces the lateral rays into
  21. Metatarsal break system occurs at
    MTP Joint
  22. Metatarsal break system refers to oblique axis between which metatarsal heads
    2nd to 5th
  23. Hinging over the metatarsal break forces the foot into a close packed position by placing the foot into
  24. Pronation forces the navicular
    Medially and inferiorly
Card Set
end of year revision