1. Cultural universalism ... (Skill 23.1)
    is defined as the elements, patterns, traits, or institutions that are common to all human cultures worldwide
  2. Cultural relativism ... (Skill 23.1)
    refers to the principle that a person's beliefs and activities should be understood in the context of his/her society.
  3. Ethnocentrism .. (Skill 23.1)
    usually focuses on one's own community and the belief that it is superior to all others
  4. Cultural pluralism ... (Skill 23.1)
    concerns the existence of groups with different ethnic, religious, or political backgrounds within one society
  5. Cultural congruence ... (Skill 23.1)
    concerns the way people develop expectations about their society that are congruent with their views of their society because it allows them to maintain stable identities
  6. Cultural geography .. (Skill 23.1)
    is the study of cultural products and norms and their variations across and relation to spaces and places
  7. Crosscultural studies ... (Skill 23.1)
    focus on intracultural issues, when members of the same culture are involved, and intercultural issues, which involve members of different cultures
  8. Peregoy and Boyle, 2008, ways external culture affects students ... (Skill 23.2)
    • -Shelter-what type of shelters are used?
    • -Clothing-what type of clothing is used?
    • -Arts and literature-how are art and literature represented in the culture?
    • -Religious structures-have the religious structures revered by the culture been present for centuries or are they more recent?
    • -Government-is the government a monarchy, dynasty, democracy?
    • -Technology-is the culture technology advanced or primative?
    • -Language-what language (or languages) is spoken by members of the culture?
    • -Food-what foods are eaten?
  9. Peregoy and Boyle, 2008, ways internal culture affects students ... (Skill 23.2)
    • -Family structures-what constitutes a family?
    • -Life cycles-what are the criteria for defining stages, periods, or transitions in life?
    • -Roles and interpersonal relationships-how do the roles of girls and women differ from those of boys and men?
    • -Discipline-what is discipline?
    • -Time and space-how important is punctuality?
    • -Religion-what restrictions are there on topics discussed in school?
    • -Health and hygiene-how are illnesses treated, and by whom?
    • -History, traditions, and holidays-which events and people are sources of pride for this culture
  10. It is often difficult to understand all of the cultural nuances that are used in multicultural classrooms ... (Skill 23.3)
    to overcome these difficulties, teachers may choose to keep a journal in which they record their observations of who interacts with whom, under what circumstances certain students seem most comfortable, and which activities seem to have the most positive responses from the class
  11. Power and status ... (Skill 23.4)
    have been major factors in human interaction for centuries ... usually attributed to the "superior culture and language."
  12. Changing demographics ... (Skill 23.4)
    will have a significant impact on the classroom ... cultural pluralism will continue to create challenges for most teachers
  13. Discriminatory behaviors take many forms but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection ... (Skill 23.4)
    • -Social class-in India, there are approximately 160 million "untouchables"
    • -Age-age discrimination can be against youths (15-25) or over 40
    • -Gender-gender discrimination takes many forms
    • -Occupation-many occupations are seen as traditional for one sex or another
    • -Education level-despite gains made against discrimination in ducation, many societies still limit the access of women and certain sectors of their populations to education
    • -Geographic isolation-minorities may suffer bias and discrimination in education because of their geographic isolation (Alaskan natives)
    • -Race-racial discrimination has been banned in the United States in the middle of the twentieth century
    • -US born versus immigrant status-being born in the US is considered by some to be superior to being an immigrant
    • -Sexual orientation-approximately 75 percent of US students have no state laws to protect them from bullying and harassment based on their sexual orientation
    • -Disabilities-discriminated against regardless of their ability to perform as productive members of society
  14. Parents and guardians may not be citizens ... (Skill 23.5)
    and they may be in fear of being deported, hence not advocate for their childs rights
  15. Family income/employment ... (Skill 23.5)
    may have low wages, etc causing stress on the ELL not knowing why this is happening
  16. Housing ... (Skill 23.5)
    may be completely different from that in their native country ... trying to acquire the American comforts may be difficult for low income
  17. Health care availability ... (Skill 23.5)
    may use free clinics and not have preventative care
  18. Parents level of education ... (Skill 23.5)
    some ELLs may have college graduated parents, others may have illiterate parents who want them to do better
  19. Teaching and learning ... (Skill 23.6)
    depend on accurate, clear communication between a teacher and his/her students.
  20. Factors interferring with communications in teh classroom ... (Skill 23.6)
    • -culture may restrict communication
    • -reluctance to "show off" at the expense of other classmates
    • -amount of "wait time" before continuing with a lesson
    • -"known answer" question, some may find this silly or a waste
  21. Assimilation ... (Skill 24.1)
    is the integration of immigrants or minorities into the predominant culture.
  22. Social scientists use four benchmarks to evaluate the degree of social assimilation ... (Skill 24.1)
    • 1. socioeconomic status
    • 2. geographic distribution
    • 3. second-language attainment
    • 4. intermarriage
  23. Culture shock ... (Skill 24.2)
    occurs when people encounter other cultures and are "shocked" by the differences they encounter
  24. Psychological distancing ... (Skill 24.2)
    the duality of closeness to and distance from a new culture
  25. Research suggests ... (Skill 24.2)
    that we fear things we see in ourselves and try to distance ourselves from them, Schimel, 2000
  26. Goodenough, 1981, Saville-Troike, 1978, culture ... (Skill 24.3)
    refers to the shared beliefs, values, and rule-governed patterns of behavior including language, that define a group are required to group membership
  27. Cultural adjustment ... (Skill 24.3)
    occurs when people from different cultures are subjected to changes in these beliefs, habits, and customs
  28. Four stages of acculturation ... (Skill 24.3)
    • 1. Honeymoon - everything looks bright and positive
    • 2. Hostility - frustration begins to occur as reality strikes
    • 3. Humor - accomplishments bring on a triumphant feeling that the new society might not be so bad
    • 4. Home - patriotism for the native country is retained while the new country is accepted as the new home
  29. English learning and acquisition depends on ... (Skill 24.4)
    the cultural and linguistic background of the ELL, as well as preconceived perceptions of English Learner cultural influences.
  30. Culture encompasses ... (Skill 24.4)
    the sum of human activity and symbolic structures that have significance and importance for a particular group of people
  31. Customs play ... (Skill 24.4)
    an important part in language learning because they directly affect interpersonal exchanges
  32. Beliefs and institutions ...
    have a strong emotional influence on ELLs and should always be respected
  33. Teachers ... (Skill 24.5)
    are both participants and observers in their classrooms
  34. Cooperative group work ... (Skill 24.5)
    is based on the premise that many cultures are more comfortable working in collaborative groups
  35. Literacy and reading instruction ... (Skill 24.5)
    are areas where multicultural sensitivity can be increased in the classroom regardless of the level of the students
  36. Day and Bamford, 1998 and Krashen, 1993 believes ... (Skill 24.5)
    that the key to any reading program is extensive reading
  37. Show and tell ... (Skill 24.5)
    is another strategy for increasing multicultural sensitivity
  38. Misunderstandings ... (Skill 24.5)
    can be worked into the clssroom by asking students to share an incident that involved cultural misunderstanding
  39. Visual/holistic versus verbal/linear-sequential ... (Skill 24.5)
    not all learners learn in the same manner
  40. Cassidy, 2004, the holistic-analytical dimension ... (Skill 24.5)
    refers to the way in which individuals tend to process information, either as a whole (holistic) or broken down into parts (analytic).
  41. Riding and Cheema (1991, in Cassidy, 2004) determined ... (Skill 24.5)
    that the holitic-analytical learner is commmonly associated with the follwoing terms: analytic-deductive, rigorous, constrained, convergent, formal, critical, and synthetic
  42. California is ... (Skill 25.1)
    considered to be one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world
  43. Since the passage of Propositition 63 in 1986, English ... (Skill 25.1)
    has been the official language of California
  44. According to the census of 2005, 57.59% of California ... (Skill 25.1)
    spoke English as the first language at home, 28% - Spanish, other common ... Filipino, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean
  45. One theory of migration is ... (Skill 25.2)
    push/pull migration ... refers to factors that cause emigration (the push) and immigration (the pull) ... often economic
  46. The fall of Saigon in 1975 ... (Skill 25.2)
    led to a wave of immigration from Vietnam.
  47. Singer and Wilson, 2007, between 1983 and 2004 ... (Skill 25.2)
    over 387,741 people immigrated to US from Vietnam
  48. Natural disasters may cause migration ... (Skill 25.2)
    earthquake in Haiti in 2009
  49. Destination of emigrants may vary ... (Skill 25.2)
    British to Spain or Italy ... Canadians to Florida or Texas ... warmer climate and lower cost of living
  50. Educational opportunities ... (Skill 25.2)
    are certainly reasons for immigrating to another country, but generally students are not considered immigrants
  51. Socioeconomic status of many immigrants ... (Skill 25.2)
    is better than what it was in their native country even for those who are unskilled laborers
  52. Native languages ... (Skill 25.2)
    the US is a pluralistic society with a multitude of native languages being spoken ...English is the de facto official language
  53. Secondary migration ... (Skill 25.2)
    occurs when one or more family members leave their native country in search of work, leaving family members behind ... when they follow, it is secondary migration
  54. Additive bilingualism ... (Skill 25.3)
    refers to cases when a second language is learned without causing adverse effects on the first language ... Canada
  55. Subtractive bilingualism ... (Skill 25.3)
    occurs when the child from a minority group learns a second language and is not provided with the opportuinity to fully develop his/her first language
  56. For ELLs, acculturation ... (Skill 25.3)
    occurs primarily in the school setting
  57. Schools are agents of cultural transmission ... (Skill 25.3)
    reflecting the culture of those having the power to run the school - community members, and the school faculty, Unrau, 2000
  58. Undocumented immigrants ... (Skill 25.3)
    may suffer physical and verbal harassment because they cannot appeal to authorities for support
  59. Prejudices and discrimination ... (Skill 25.3)
    are examples of negative power forces that push people apart
  60. Boulding, 1989, referred to this as "disintegrative power ... (Skill 25.3)
    the integration that is achieved through hatred, fear, and the threat of common enemy."
  61. Most immigrants ... (Skill 25.3)
    face economic challenges
  62. Interactions between newcomers and US-born members of the same cultural group ... (Skill 25.3)
    may become polarized as each group tries to build up its power base
  63. Teachers and administrators ... (Skill 25.3)
    should work to reduce stereotyping before it becomes a problem
  64. Bennett, 1995, a strong school program ... (Skill 25.3)
    • - a learning environment that supports positive interracial contact
    • - a multicultural curriculum
    • - positive teacher expectations from all students
    • - administrative support
    • - teacher-training workshops on identifying and combating stereotyping
  65. ELLs often feel ... (Skill 25.4)
    as if they lose a part of themselves when faced with the complexities of learning a new language and culture
  66. The teacher should incorporate ... (Skill 25.4)
    elements of the ELLs culture and previous knowledge into his/her teaching
  67. Communication in a culture ... (Skill 26.1)
    involves not only the language but also gestures, facial expressions, and body stance, among other elements
  68. Oral discourse - ways conversations open and close, Kramsch, 1998 ... (Skill 26.2)
    notes that in classroom discussion, American students begin with whomever takes the initiative, Japanese gender/age order
  69. Oral discourse - timing of responses ... (Skill 26.2)
    wait time varies considerably in different cultures
  70. Oral discourse - turn-taking practices ... (Skill 26.2)
    may need to be taught
  71. Oral discourse - volume of voice ... (Skill 26.2)
    volume, quality, intonation, and dialect all play a role
  72. Oral discourse - use/role of silence ... (Skill 26.2)
    North Americans value small talk, Asians value silence
  73. Written disourse - style of argumentation ... (Skill 26.2)
    African American students may look away from speakers and freely state their opinions to the teacher
  74. Written discourse - use of voice ... (Skill 26.2)
    in English, voice is the sound of the story or the narrator, other cultures may be different
  75. Written discourse - formality level ... (Skill 26.2)
    written language is more formal than spoken language in most cases
  76. Written discourse - organizational structure ... (Skill 26.2)
    Gee, 1985 and Michaels 1981, claim teachers prefer linear, single-topic story telling, children from oral cultures often prefer narrative-style stories and assume a shared knowledge with their audience
  77. Cultural differences in communication styles ... (Skill 26.3)
    native speakers have to be taught about the cultural differences in the communication styles of immigrants - role plays are useful
  78. Intercultural communication strategies ... (Skill 26.3)
    • some - straight to the point
    • others - need to warm up
  79. Strategies for resolving cultural conflicts ... (Skill 26.3)
    encourage students to suspend judgement, investigate the situation
  80. Strategies that enable students to appreciate and analyze multiple perspectives ... (Skill 26.3)
    SDAIE emphasizes that every student brings a unique perspective to each learning situation
  81. Strategies for helping students become aware of the concepts of ethnocentrism and cultural relativism ... (Skill 26.3)
    are two extremes on opposite ends of the philosophical debate
  82. Schools need to have a system of values in place ... (Skill 26.4)
    that emphasizes staff and students working toward goals together
  83. High-performing schools ... (Skill 26.4)
    have a positive core ideology that includes a core purpose and a set of fundamental values and beliefs
  84. High-performing schools ... (Skill 26.4)
    engage in reinforcing behaviors through rituals, hero making, storytelling, symbolic display, and rules
  85. Teachers should ... (Skill 27.1)
    be able to bridge the differences in cultures by being culturally aware and respectful of all cultures
  86. Teachers must ... (Skill 27.1)
    actively study other cultures
  87. It is up to teachers ... (Skill 27.1)
    to provide a safe haven.
  88. Teachers raised in the North American culture are considered field-independent ... (Skill 27.2)
    is independent, competitive, emphasizes details of concepts, emphasizes facts and principles - Zainuddin, 2007
  89. Many teachers and school districts set up visits to the homes of their students ... (Skill 27.3)
    to acquire in-depth knowledge of English Learners' home cultures and cultural experiences
  90. Teachers can gain valuable informaiton about students' home cultures ... (Skill 27.3)
    by encouraging students to participate in activities such as telling oral histories and/or writing about the family and their experiences
  91. It is important to explain to students ... (Skill 28.1)
    especially older learners, your reasons for choosing one style over the other
  92. For many years, immigrants ... (Skill 28.2)
    were not encouraged to strive for high levels of achievement ... NCLB and disaggregated data, schools are now doing so
  93. There is a high level of respect ... (Skill 28.2)
    for cultural and linguistic diversity, including valuing and validating the primary language and its use
  94. There is high level of interaction ... (Skill 28.2)
    among students with different backgrounds - many students feel that the teacher is the only academic authority in the classroom and as such, should be the one to answer questions rther than their peers .. difficult to move toward cooperative work
  95. To ensure multicultural perspectives throughout the curriculum ... (Skill 28.2)
    teachers can look at different themes through multicultural perspectives using teh myths, narratives, and literature of different cultures to set the stage for a topic
  96. Racism, stereotyping, and discrimination are difficult social issues to address in the classroom ... (Skill 28.2)
    easy for younger children, for older, "The Ron Clark Story", how a NYC teacher deals with racism, etc, in his classroom
  97. Teachers are ... (Skill 28.2)
    expected to be aware of the cultural differences among their students and to create an atmosphere of zero tolerence for cultural insensitivity
  98. To create an atmosphere of zero tolerance ... (Skill 28.2)
    a teacher needs to be keenly aware of the cultural insensitivity in his or her own presentations and in the classroom
  99. Some benefits of outreach programs ... (Skill 28.2)
    • -older members of the community can be encouraged to mento at-risk students
    • -parents can serve as tutors
    • -room parents provide support for classroom events
    • -PTA groups provide members with organizational skills
  100. Review the textbooks used in your classroom ... (Skill 28.3)
    observe the roles of males, females, people of color, and ethnic minorities, do the roles seem just, comment on inequities
  101. Analyze the nonverbal communication ... (Skill 28.3)
    you use and focus on teaching your students what it means
  102. Communicate respect and sincere interest ... (Skill 28.3)
    in your students and their cultures
  103. Make sure your classroom ... (Skill 28.3)
    sends a positive, welcoming message
  104. Encourage parents ... (Skill 28.3)
    to continue speaking their native language in the home
  105. It is important to provide opportunities ... (Skill 29.1)
    for the public to come into the school and participate in activities
  106. Taking the time to educate parents ... (Skill 29.1)
    not only hleps to enhance understanding and open communication and more support than school alone
  107. Stategies for educating parents ... (Skill 29.1)
    • -bingo-facts are about EL instruction
    • -small parent workshops
    • -newsletter articles/paragraphs
    • -individual parent meeting
  108. Some ways to share information with parents ... (Skill 29.1)
    • -individual parent meetings
    • -small group meetings
    • -regular updates through phone calls
    • -charts and graphs of progress sent home
    • -notes sent home
  109. Parents often delight ... (Skill 29.2)
    in being part of the educational community when encouraged to do so
  110. Many parents enjoy sharing their expertise when invited to participate through outreach ... (Skill 29.2)
    • -mentor at-risk students
    • -tutor students
    • -room parents support classroom events
    • -parents to talk about their homeland and culture great for getting reticent parents involved
  111. Parents, guardians, and community leaders ... (Skill 29.3)
    are stakeholders in the school and community, and smooth relationships among different cultures need to be established early ... Chinese New Year, Cinco de Mayo
  112. Committees that welcome parent involvement ... (Skill 29.4)
    • -Autism Advisory Committee (AAC)
    • -District English Learners Advisory Committee (DELAC)
    • -GATE Parent Advisory Committee (GAC)
    • -PTA
  113. Mitchell ,1990, 3 methods for reducing racial conflict ... (Skill 29.5)
    • 1. Multicultural education-usually discusses social differences and ignores the topics of racism or ethnic differences
    • 2. Antiracist education-Cole, 1990, provides a manual to use so individuals can reflect on racism
    • 3. Conflict resolution-agencies such as School Mediation Associates of Cambridge, MA, work with schools and communities to plan, set goals, and mediate when conflicts arise because of race, ethnicity, class, or gender
  114. Mitchell, 1990, suggests policies should include ... (Skill 29.5)
    • -racial and cultural diversity among members of the administration, faculty, and staff
    • -Services for victims of bias-motivated violence
    • -reporting and monitoring of trends in racial attitudes
    • -committees on human relations that include students, faculty, and staff
  115. Characteristics of the additive approach to multicultural reform ... (Skill 30.1)
    • -features-adds ethnic content without restructuring the curriculum
    • -goals-increase the linguistic abilities of students without diminishing L1 ability
    • -outcomes-a resource for bilingual peoples to draw upon
  116. Characteristics of the transformative approach ... (Skill 30.1)
    • -features-tries to infuse various perspectives, frames of reference, and content from various groups
    • -goals-extend students' understanding of the complexity of US society
    • -outcomes-deeper understanding of cultural issues and the US as a society with multicultural input from many cultures based on a common language
  117. Additive curriculum ... (Skill 30.2)
    would encourage students to take a look at leaders, sports figures, from various countries
  118. Technological resources ... (Skill 30.2)
    can be used as simple as a PC, websites, etc
  119. Transformative curriculum ... (Skill 30.2)
    encourages teachers to use action research, service learning projects, and personal reflection to deepen their knowledge of the topics being discussed
  120. A multicultural curriculum ... (Skill 30.3)
    should include equal opportunities for all students
  121. Curriculum should reflect ... (Skill 30.3)
    recognition of deep cultural values (e.g. family structures, male/female roles) instead of surface ones
  122. Students who have teachers from their own culture ... (Skill 30.4)
    will have less difficulty in understanding the teacher's instructions than those from different cultures
  123. The teacher can accommodate various styles ... (Skill 30.4)
    by arranging group work in such a way that each member is held accountable for a specific task within the group, Unrau, 2008
  124. Muslims, Native Americans, and Asians value ... (Skill 30.4)
    cooperation and loyalty to the group - competition not so good
  125. In many cultures, teachers are the absolute authority ... (Skill 30.4)
    teachers answer students ... debates, or students defending their position, not so good
  126. Teachers can introduce particular activities ... (Skill 30.4)
    that students have refused to participate in previously by focusing on the reward, the materials, the situation, or the task requirements, Zainuddin, 2007
  127. Teachers can use parents' working environments ... (Skill 30.5)
    to extend the learning experiences of their students by inviting parents in to the classroom to speak about their professions
Card Set
CTEL Part 3