Psychology Test #2

  1. the study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities over the life span.
    Development Psychology
  2. the first heriditary difference that appears in newborn babies; it is the core of personality, and includes sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, and typical mood.
  3. 10% of newborns; moody, intense, and easily angered
    Difficult Children
  4. 15%; restrained, unexpressive, or shy
    Slow-To-Warm-Up Children
  5. any substance capable of altering fetal development in ways that can cause birth defects; The impact of nurturing begins from the moment of conception (prenatally)
  6. depends on the child's Readiness for rapid learning, which is dependent on certain levels of maturation
    Motor Development
  7. babies engage in _____ ______ whereby they observe otheres to obtain information or guidance in ambiguous situations.
    Social Referencing
  8. the rapid and early learning of permanent behavior patterns; is guided by social referencing
  9. between 8 and 12 months
    Separation Anxiety
  10. an anxious emotional bond marked by a tendency to avoid reunion with caregiver
    Insecure Avoidant Attachment
  11. an anxious emotional bond marked by both a desire to be with the caregiver and some resistance to being reunited
    Insecure Ambivalent Attachment
  12. enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority, Children are usually obedient, self-controlled, emotionally stiff, withdrawn, apprehensive, and lacking in curiosity
    Authoritarian Parents
  13. supply firm and consistent guidance, combined with love and affection. Children tend to be more competent, self-controlled, independent, assertive, and inquiring
    Authoritative Parents
  14. However, social relationships contribute greatly to _____ ______ ______
    Early Language Development
  15. a pattern of speech used when talking to infants, marked by a higher-pitched voice, short, simple sentences, repetition, slower speech, and exaggerated voice inflections. It is harmless for a short time. However, continued use can slow language learning
  16. process of using existing mental patterns in new situations
  17. process of existing ideas are modified to fit new requirements
  18. an object still exists when out of sight
    Object Permanence
  19. that size, weight, and volume remain unchanged when shape is changed
  20. children's thinking develops through Guided Participation, which are dialogues and interactions with more capable people, such as parents, teachers, and older siblings
    Sociocultural Theory
  21. A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.
    What is Learning?
  22. The keys to learning are:
    Stimulus, Response, and Reinforcement
  23. is any event or experience that evokes a response
  24. any identifiable behavior
  25. any event that increases the probability that a response will occur again
  26. a form fo learning based on antecedent events and involuntary responses
    Classical Conditioning
  27. learning based on the consequences and voluntary responses
    Operant Conditioning
  28. Classical Conditioning has five important elements:
    • Neutral Stimulus (NS)
    • Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
    • Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    • Unconditioned Response (UR)

    Image Upload 2
  29. occurs when a response is followed by a reward or other positive event; meant to Increase the likelihood that the behavior will occur again
    Positive Reinforcement
  30. occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or the removal fo an unpleasant event; also meant to Increase the likelihood that the behavior will occur again
    Negative Reinforcement
  31. any aversive (unpleasant) event that follows a response and Decreases its likelihood of occuring again
  32. natural, unlearned, and usually serve a biological need, such as food, water, and sex
    Primary Reinforcers
  33. learned and often associated with a primary reinforcer, such as money, praise, attention, and success
    Secondary Reinforcers
  34. decreases the probablility that a response will occur again
  35. any consequence that reduces the frequency of a target behavior, may be the onset of an unpleasant event (spanking) or the removal of something positive (no cell phone)
  36. The effectiveness of punishment depends largely on _____ _____ _____
    Timing, Consistency, and Intensity
  37. If you must punish, here's how:
    • Don't use punishment at all if you can simply discourage misbehavior.
    • Apply punishment during, or immediately after, misbehavior.
    • Use the minimum punishment necessary to suppress misbehavior.
    • Be consistent- don't let them get away with it "sometimes".
    • Expect and allow some anger from a punished person.
    • Punish with kindness and respect.
    • Be sure to notice and reinforce positive behaviors.
  38. achieved by watching and imitating the actions of another person or by noting the consequences of that person's actions; also referred to as Modeling
    Observational Learning
  39. using rewards to alter your own behavior in seven easy steps:
    Behavioral Self-Management

    • 1st - choose target behavior.
    • 2nd- record a baseline (how often you
    • engage in that behavior)
  40. anything donte often can serve as reinforcement for something you do not like to do
    Premack Principle
  41. information is changed in to a useable form (like typing data into a computer)
    1st Step of Memory: Encoding
  42. information is held in one of the storage systems (like a file folder or on a computer disk)
    2nd Step of Memory: Storage
  43. memories are taken out of storage to be used (like opening a particular file or disk on a computer).
    3rd Step of Memory: Retrieval
  44. The Three Memory Systems
    it is important to remember that no memory system is absolute
  45. new information must first enter sensory memory, where it is held as an icon (a fleeting mental image) or an echo (a flurry of auditory activity) for a few seconds or less, just long enough to transfer it to the second system, otherwise, it is forgotten.
    Sensory Memory
  46. holds small amounts fo information briefly, though longer than sensory memory; acts as a sort of "mental scratchpad" while we think about the information. This system is limited to 7 +/- 2 information bits called Chunks
    Short-Term Working Memory
  47. makes information more meaningful; it is far better than maintenance rehearsal in forming long-term memories.
    Elaborative Rehearsal
  48. information that is important if transferred to a long-term memory storehouse
    Long-Term Memory
  49. updating memories is called _____ ______
    Constructive Processing
  50. through this process, it is possible for a person to form _____ _____, false memories that a person believes to be true
  51. basic conditioned responses and learned actions, such as driving or playing golf
    Procedural Memory
  52. a type fo declarative memory that records impersonal information about the world, such as names of objects, days of the week, simple math skills, as well as words and language
    Semantic Memory
  53. a type of declarative memory that records personal experiences that are linked with specific times and places, such as remembering your 7th birthda or your first date
    Episodic Memory
  54. (like on an essay exam)
    A test of Recall
  55. the fading or weakening of memories due to disuse or the passage of time
    Memory Decay
  56. information learned under the influenc of a certain drug may not be remembered unless the drugged state occurs again; also occurs with emotional states
    State-Dependent Forgetting
  57. tendency for new learning to inhibit retrieval of old information
    Retroactive Interference
  58. tendency for old learning to inhibit retrieval of new information
    Proactive Interference
  59. any kind of memory system aid, such as using mental pictures, making things meaningful, making information familar, or forming bizarre, unusual, or exaggerated mental associations
Card Set
Psychology Test #2
Ch. 3 Child Development, Ch. 8 Conditioning and Learning, Ch. 9 Memory