Intro Nursing Ch 3

  1. Nursing Theory
    • (nursing research is based on nursing theory)
    • An organized set of related ideas and concept that:
    • 1. assist us in finding meaning in our experiences
    • 2. Organize our thinking around an idea
    • 3. Develop new ideas and insights into the work we do
  2. Components of a Theory
    • Phenomena
    • assumptions
    • concepts
    • definitions
    • statements/ propositions
  3. Paradigm:
    • worldview or ideology
    • -pattrern of shared understandings and assumptions about reality and the world
    • -include our notion of reality that are largely unconscious or taken for granted
  4. Conceptual framework
    • -set of concepts related to form a whole
    • -group of related ideas, statements, or concepts
  5. Model
    -symbolic representation of a framework or concept
  6. theory
    supposition or system of ideas that is proposed to explain a given phenomenon
  7. practice discipline
    fields of study in which the central focus is performance of a professional role
  8. How are theories developed?
    • A nurse has an idea to explore through research
    • Logical reasoning -
    • 1. inductive reasoning - generalizations are formed from a set of facts or observations
    • - moves from specific examples to a generalized conclusion

    2. deductive reasoning - resoning from the general premise to the specific conclusion
  9. Essential Concepts of a Nursing Theory
    also called the metaparadigm for nursing

    1. Person (client) - recipient of nursing care (includes individuals, families, groups, and communities)

    2. Environment - internal and external surroundings that affect the client (includes people in the physical environment such as families, friends, and significant others.

    3. Health - degree of wellness or well-being that the client experiences

    4. Nursing - attributes, characteristics, and actions of the nurse providing care for or with the client.
  10. Purpose of nursing theories
    Describe, explain, and predict human behavior

    Used in practice, education, and research
  11. Florence Nightingale
    • Nightingale's Environmental Theory
    • "the act of utilizing the environment of the parient to assist him in his recovery"

    • 5 environmental factors:
    • 1. pure/ fresh air
    • 2. pure water
    • 3. efficient drainage
    • 4. cleanliness
    • 5. light
  12. Virginia Henderson
    • Henderson's Definition of Nursing
    • -describes nursing in relation to client & clients environment
    • - nurse is concerned with both healthy and ill, and even when recovery is not feasable
    • - teaching and advocacy
    • - nurses role is to assist sick or healthy individuals to gain independence in 14 fundomental needs
  13. Hildegard Peplau
    • Peplau's Interpersonal Relations Model
    • -psychiatric nurse
    • -use of therapeutic relationship between the nurse and the client
    • Four Phases
    • 1. Orientation - nurse and client understand the problem
    • 2. Identification - nurse understands clients situation
    • 3. Exploitation - client uses available services
    • 4. Resolution - old need and goals are put aside and new ones adopted
  14. Patricia Benner
  15. Madeleine Leninger
    • Leininger's Cultural Care Diversity and Universality Theory
    • -care is the essence of nursing and the dominant, distinctive, and unifying feature of nursing
    • -human caring varies among cultures in its expressions, processes and patterns - it is culturally derived
  16. Jean Watson
    • Watson's Human Caring Theory
    • -practice of caring is central to nursing; it is the unifying focus for practive
  17. Systems theory
    provides a way of examining interrelationships and deriving principles
  18. Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Human Needs
    Pyramid with most important needs at the base (broadest part) and less important needs at the pinnacle

    • 1. Physiologic - food, shelter
    • 2. Safety and security
    • 3. Love and belonging
    • 4. Self-esteem
    • 5. Self -actualization
  19. Patricia Benner
    • Caring Practice
    • -caring is the essence of excellence in nursing
Card Set
Intro Nursing Ch 3
Chapter 3 on Theories & Conceptual Frameworks