VSIII.txt

  1. Definition: Pathology
    Study of disease
  2. Definition: Disease
    Any change from the state of health causing a disruption of homeostasis
  3. Definition: Homeostasis
    Maintaining physiologic limits
  4. Definition: Local disease
    One part, or a limited area of the body is affected
  5. Definition: Systemic disease
    All of the body is affected
  6. Definition: Symptom
    Are subjective, changes are not obvious to observer, are reported by patient. Example: Pain

    Symptoms are not often seen in our field because the Patient cannot talk.
  7. Definition: Signs
    Are objective, can be read. Changes are obvious to observer, are observed by examiner or measured with equipment.

    Example: fever, rash.
  8. Definition: Diagnosis
    The art and science of distinguishing one disease from another. State of complete knowledge.
  9. What does a diagnosis include implementing?
    Medical hx, P.E, dx testing, problems list, differential dx, tx plan
  10. Definition: Infection
    Invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, can be unapparent or characterized by tissue damage.
  11. Definition: Infectious dz
    Dz caused by a pathogen
  12. Definition: Contagious, infectious dz
    A dz that can be transmitted between animals
  13. Definition: Pathogen
    A dz causing organism
  14. Definition: Incubation period
    Time from entry of pathogen until signs of dz occur
  15. Definition: Subclinical or uapparent infection
    Pathogen present but no signs of dz
  16. Two types of unapparent infections
    Carrier and latent
  17. Definition: Carrier
    An infected individual that never shows signs of dz but sheds agents. Must be living. Appears healthy
  18. Definition: Latent infection
    An infected individual that does not show signs of dz until stressed, then the agent is shed and clinical signs appear. Look healthy until stressed.
  19. Definition: Vector
    Anything that transmits a contagious dz
  20. 3 types of vectors
    Biological, Mechanical, Fomite
  21. Definition: Biological vector
    Intermediate host
  22. Definition: Mechanical vector
    Living organism that spreads agent but is not infected
  23. Definition: Fomite:
    Non-living objects that transmit dz.
  24. Definition: Reservoir
    Carrier or alternate host. Agent is maintained in reservoir species which are a source of infection. Living/ non-living material. Will most often make ill but not always.
  25. Definition: Zoonotic
    Dz contagious from animal to man.
  26. Definition: Reverse zoonotic
    Dz contagious from man to animals
  27. Definition: Enzootic
    Dz that is present in the community all the time.
  28. Definition: Morbidity
    A diseased state or ration of Sick to Well in a population. Usually expressed as a ratio. Sick: Well. Can also be expressed as a percentage.
  29. Definition: Mortality
    Number of deaths among exposed or infected individuals. Either death among sick only or death among exposed only.
  30. Definition: Pathognomonic
    Signs that are unique to a specific dz
  31. Definition: Resistance
    The ability to ward of dz through the body's defense mechanisms.
  32. Definition: Susceptibility
    Vulnerability or lack of resistance to a dz.
  33. The three factors that interact in infectious dzs
    • 1. Host factors
    • 2. Environmental factors
    • 3. Agent factors
  34. Examples of host factors.
    • Age
    • Health status/ Meds
    • Stress
    • Nutritional status
    • Immunization status
  35. Environmental factors
    • Crowding
    • Sanitation
    • Temperature and humidity
  36. What does crowding increase?
    • #/ carriers
    • Concentration of agent
    • Exposure frequency
    • Stress
  37. What does crowding decrease?
    Sanitation
  38. Agent factors
    • Virulence
    • Amount of exposure needed
    • Transmission
  39. Two types of resistance
    • Non-specific
    • Specific
  40. Definition: Non-specific resistance
    Immediate protection. Provides general resistance to a dz.
  41. Definition: Specific resistance
    Takes longer to form, defense is to one pathogen only
  42. What is the first line of defense and what does it provide?
    Skin & MMs; Mechanical and chemical protection
  43. What does the production of mucus and other body fluids do?
    Dilutes and washes away microbes.
  44. What are examples of chemical protection?
    • Sebum
    • Perspiration
    • Gastric juice
  45. What is the second line of defense?
    Antimicrobial substances
  46. What proteins are included in the second line of defense?
    • Transferrin
    • Interferon
    • Complement system
  47. What does transferrin do?
    Binds to iron so bacteria can't use it
  48. What does interferon do?
    A protein produced by infected cells to help unaffected cells start protecting themselves.
  49. What is the complement system?
    A protein in plasma which enahnces the immune, allergenic and inflammatory responses. Normally inactive, is activated by the ag-ab complex.
  50. What is the third line of defense?
    Phagocytosis
  51. What cells are involved in phagocytosis?
    • Neutrophils
    • Macrophages
  52. What is phagocytosis?
    Ingestion of microbes or foreign materials by cells
  53. What is neutrophil?
    1st responder WBC
  54. Definition: Fever
    Increase in body temp, thought to mobilize defense systems, accelerates repairs, reduces duration of infection or inhibits pathogens
Author
BLMercier91
ID
89154
Card Set
VSIII.txt
Description
Common diseases of companion animals and other related materials.
Updated