1. Definition: Pathology
    Study of disease
  2. Definition: Disease
    Any change from the state of health causing a disruption of homeostasis
  3. Definition: Homeostasis
    Maintaining physiologic limits
  4. Definition: Local disease
    One part, or a limited area of the body is affected
  5. Definition: Systemic disease
    All of the body is affected
  6. Definition: Symptom
    Are subjective, changes are not obvious to observer, are reported by patient. Example: Pain

    Symptoms are not often seen in our field because the Patient cannot talk.
  7. Definition: Signs
    Are objective, can be read. Changes are obvious to observer, are observed by examiner or measured with equipment.

    Example: fever, rash.
  8. Definition: Diagnosis
    The art and science of distinguishing one disease from another. State of complete knowledge.
  9. What does a diagnosis include implementing?
    Medical hx, P.E, dx testing, problems list, differential dx, tx plan
  10. Definition: Infection
    Invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, can be unapparent or characterized by tissue damage.
  11. Definition: Infectious dz
    Dz caused by a pathogen
  12. Definition: Contagious, infectious dz
    A dz that can be transmitted between animals
  13. Definition: Pathogen
    A dz causing organism
  14. Definition: Incubation period
    Time from entry of pathogen until signs of dz occur
  15. Definition: Subclinical or uapparent infection
    Pathogen present but no signs of dz
  16. Two types of unapparent infections
    Carrier and latent
  17. Definition: Carrier
    An infected individual that never shows signs of dz but sheds agents. Must be living. Appears healthy
  18. Definition: Latent infection
    An infected individual that does not show signs of dz until stressed, then the agent is shed and clinical signs appear. Look healthy until stressed.
  19. Definition: Vector
    Anything that transmits a contagious dz
  20. 3 types of vectors
    Biological, Mechanical, Fomite
  21. Definition: Biological vector
    Intermediate host
  22. Definition: Mechanical vector
    Living organism that spreads agent but is not infected
  23. Definition: Fomite:
    Non-living objects that transmit dz.
  24. Definition: Reservoir
    Carrier or alternate host. Agent is maintained in reservoir species which are a source of infection. Living/ non-living material. Will most often make ill but not always.
  25. Definition: Zoonotic
    Dz contagious from animal to man.
  26. Definition: Reverse zoonotic
    Dz contagious from man to animals
  27. Definition: Enzootic
    Dz that is present in the community all the time.
  28. Definition: Morbidity
    A diseased state or ration of Sick to Well in a population. Usually expressed as a ratio. Sick: Well. Can also be expressed as a percentage.
  29. Definition: Mortality
    Number of deaths among exposed or infected individuals. Either death among sick only or death among exposed only.
  30. Definition: Pathognomonic
    Signs that are unique to a specific dz
  31. Definition: Resistance
    The ability to ward of dz through the body's defense mechanisms.
  32. Definition: Susceptibility
    Vulnerability or lack of resistance to a dz.
  33. The three factors that interact in infectious dzs
    • 1. Host factors
    • 2. Environmental factors
    • 3. Agent factors
  34. Examples of host factors.
    • Age
    • Health status/ Meds
    • Stress
    • Nutritional status
    • Immunization status
  35. Environmental factors
    • Crowding
    • Sanitation
    • Temperature and humidity
  36. What does crowding increase?
    • #/ carriers
    • Concentration of agent
    • Exposure frequency
    • Stress
  37. What does crowding decrease?
  38. Agent factors
    • Virulence
    • Amount of exposure needed
    • Transmission
  39. Two types of resistance
    • Non-specific
    • Specific
  40. Definition: Non-specific resistance
    Immediate protection. Provides general resistance to a dz.
  41. Definition: Specific resistance
    Takes longer to form, defense is to one pathogen only
  42. What is the first line of defense and what does it provide?
    Skin & MMs; Mechanical and chemical protection
  43. What does the production of mucus and other body fluids do?
    Dilutes and washes away microbes.
  44. What are examples of chemical protection?
    • Sebum
    • Perspiration
    • Gastric juice
  45. What is the second line of defense?
    Antimicrobial substances
  46. What proteins are included in the second line of defense?
    • Transferrin
    • Interferon
    • Complement system
  47. What does transferrin do?
    Binds to iron so bacteria can't use it
  48. What does interferon do?
    A protein produced by infected cells to help unaffected cells start protecting themselves.
  49. What is the complement system?
    A protein in plasma which enahnces the immune, allergenic and inflammatory responses. Normally inactive, is activated by the ag-ab complex.
  50. What is the third line of defense?
  51. What cells are involved in phagocytosis?
    • Neutrophils
    • Macrophages
  52. What is phagocytosis?
    Ingestion of microbes or foreign materials by cells
  53. What is neutrophil?
    1st responder WBC
  54. Definition: Fever
    Increase in body temp, thought to mobilize defense systems, accelerates repairs, reduces duration of infection or inhibits pathogens
Card Set
Common diseases of companion animals and other related materials.