Unit 2 Ch 15 Vocab plus.txt

  1. Ewing sarcoma
    rare malignant tumor arising in bone; most often occurring in children
  2. exostosis
    bony growth arising from the surface of bone
  3. fracture
    traumatic breaking of a bone
  4. simple or closed fracture
    break in bone but not in skin
  5. compound or open fracture
    break in bone and in skin
  6. Colles' fracture
    at distal end of radius near wrist
  7. comminuted fracture
    bone is splintered or crushed into several pieces
  8. compression fracture
    bone collapses or is compressed
  9. greenstick fracture
    bone is partially broken; one side remains unbroken
  10. impacted fracture
    one fragment of bone is driven firmly into the other
  11. osteogenic sarcoma, osteosarcoma
    common malignant tumor arising from osteoblasts
  12. osteomalacia
    softening of bone, with inadequate amounts of calcium in the bone
  13. osteomyelitis
    imflammation of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection
  14. osteoporosis
    decrease in bone density; thinning and weakening of bone
  15. talipes
    congenital abnormality of the hindfoot
  16. ankylosing spondylitis
    chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine
  17. gouty arthritis
    inflammation and painful swelling of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body
  18. osteoarthritis
    progressive, degenerative joint disease with loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone at articular surfaces
  19. rheumatoid arthritis
    chronic joint condition with inflammation and pain; caused by an autoimmune reaction against joint tissue, particularly the synovial membrane
  20. bunion
    enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe
  21. carpal tunnel syndrome
    compression of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist
  22. dislocation
    displacement of a bone from its joint
  23. ganglion
    fluid-filled cyst arising from joint capsules or tendons, typically in the hand
  24. herniation of an intervertebral disk
    abnormal protrusion of an intervertebral disk into the spinal canal or spinal nerve
  25. Lyme disease
    disorder marked by arthritis, myalgia, and malaise; caused by bacterium carried by a tick
  26. sprain
    trauma to a joint without rupture
  27. systemic lupus erythematoses
    chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system, heart and lungs
  28. flexion
    decreasing the angle between two bones; bending a limb
  29. extension
    increasing the angle between two bones; straightening a limb
  30. abduction
    movement away from the midline of the body
  31. adduction
    movement toward the midline of the body
  32. rotation
    circular movement around an axis. Internal rotation is toward the midline and external is away form the midline.
  33. dorsiflexion
    decreasing the angle of the ankle joint so that the foot bends backward (upward).
  34. plantar flexion
    motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground as when pointing the toes.
  35. supination
    as applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm up. As applied to the foot, it is outward roll of the foot during normal motion.
  36. pronation
    as applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm down. As applied to the foot, it is inward roll of the foot during normal motion.
  37. muscular dystrophy
    group of inherited diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers without involvement of the nervous system.
  38. polymyositis
    chronic inflammatory myopathy
  39. acetabulum
    the socket of the hip joint
  40. acromion
    lateral process of the shoulder blade
  41. articular cartilage
    thin layer of cartilage covering the bone in the joint space
  42. articulation
    any type of joint
  43. bursa
    sac of fluid near a joint; promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another
  44. cancellous bone
    spongy, poous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone
  45. compact bone
    hard, dense bone tissue, usually found around the outer portion of bones
  46. condyle
    knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint
  47. diaphysis
    shaft of a long bone
  48. epiphyseal plate
    cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place.
  49. epiphysis
    each end of a long bone, beyond the epiphyseal plate
  50. fascia
    fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles
  51. fissure
    narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones
  52. fontanelle
    soft spot between the skull bones of an infant
  53. foramen
    opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and exit.
  54. fossa
    shallow cavity in a bone
  55. haversian canals
    minute spaces filled with blood vessels, found in compact bone
  56. ligament
    connective tissue binding bones to other bones
  57. malleolus
    round processes found on both sides of the ankle joint. lateral is fibula, medial is tibia
  58. manubrium
    upper portion of the sternum; articulates with the clavicle
  59. mastoid process
    round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear
  60. medullary cavity
    central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone
  61. metaphysis
    lared portion of a long bone between the diaphysis and the epiphyseal plate
  62. olecranon
    large process on the proemial end of the ulna
  63. ossification
    process of bone formation
  64. red bone marrow
    found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis
  65. synovial cavity
    space between bones at a synovial joint
  66. synovial fluid
    fluid within the synovial cavity
  67. tendon
    connective tissue that binds muscles to bones
  68. trochanter
    large process at the neck of the femur for attachment of tendons
  69. tubercle
    rounded, small process on bone where tendons attach
  70. tuberosity
    rounded process on bone where tendons attach
  71. yellow bone marrow
    fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones
  72. kyphosis
  73. lordosis
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Unit 2 Ch 15 Vocab plus.txt