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a lifestyle or pattern of behavior that enhances each of the dimensions of health.
Five dimensions of health (1)
Physical health- the efficiency of the body to function appropriately to maintain immunity to disease, and to meet daily energy requirements.
Five dimensions of health (2)
Intellectual health- The use of intellectual abilities to learn and to adapt to change ones environment.
Five dimensions of health (3)
Emotional health- THe capacity to easily express or suppress emotions appropriately.
Five dimensions of health (4)
Social health- The ability to interact with people in an acceptable manner and to sustain relationships with family members, friends, and colleagues.
Five dimensions of health (5)
Spiritual health- The cultural beliefs that give purpose to human existence.
Recognition of danger to health that could be reduced or alleviated through specific actions or changes in lifestyle behaviors.
Primary prevention: activities done to avoid the development of disease
Secondary prevention: Involves early detection; minimizes negative effects
occurs after the disease has developed; goal is to minimize further complications
6 categories of nutrients
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids (fats), vitamins, minerals, and water.
- Protein and Carbs 4 kcal/gram
- Lipids (fats) 9 kcal/gram
- Alcohol 7 kcal/gram however not a nutrient
vitamins- compounds that assist other nutrients through the complete process of digestion absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Provide no energy but assist in the release of energy from carbs, lipids, and proteins.
minerals- serve structural purpose and are found in body fluids.
water- functions as a fluid in which substances can be broken down and reformed for use by the body. Provides a means of transportation for nutrients to and from the cells.
Information required by FDA on all food labels
total food energy, food energy from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbs, dietary fiber, sugar, protein, vitamin A and C, calcium, and iron. Daily values, reference daily intakes, and daily reference values.
Government agencies supervise the production and preparation of food products to ensure the safety of the foods we purchase. But once we purchase the food products we are responsible the proper handling and preparation to prevent food-borne illness. (pg. 51-52)
Digestion is the process by which substances are broken down mechanically and chemically into smaller molecules in preparation for absorption
mouth --> pharynx --> esophagus --> stomach --> small intestine (95% of absorption occurs) --> large intestine --> rectum --> out the anus
movement of digested nutrients from the GI tract into cellular processes
a set of processes through which absorbed nutrients are used by the body for energy and to form and maintain body structure and functions.
- one sugar molecule
- glucose- sugar in blood
- fructose-fruit sugar
- galactose- in milk
- two sugar molecules
- sucrose (glucose + fructose) table sugar
- lactose (glucose + galactose) milk sugar
- maltose ( glucose + glucose) malt sugar
three or more sugar molecules (starches and fiber)
monosaccharides and disaccharides
polysaccharides of starch and fiber "good carbs"
dissolve in fluid (legumes, kidney beans, lentils, navy beans, apples, pears, bananas, grapes, citrus fruits, oat bran, oatmeal, barley, corn, white potatoes.
dont dissolve in fluids (whole grains, whole wheat flour, wheat bran, brown rice, whole wheat pasta, oatmeal, unrefined cereals, vegetables, seeds, popcorn, nuts, and peanut butter
Benefits of dietary fiber
- weight management- helps with feeling of fullness
- constipation- insoluble fiber aids elimination
- diverticular disease- polyps develop due to lack of fiber
- colon cancer- high fiber diet: two fold prevention
- heart disease- soluble fiber binds lipids and cholesterol
- diabetes- soluble fiber decreases the absorption of CHO
- organic compounds formed from chains of amino acids
- -amino acids contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, plus nitrogen
Essential amino acids
cannot be made by the cells of the body and must be eaten in food (9)
Non-essential amino acids
can be made by the liver using nitrogen from other amino acids (11)
contains all 9 essential amino acids (meat, cheese, eggs, fish, milk, and yogurt)
lacks one or more of the essential amino acids (cereals, bread, beans, peanuts, broccoli, and potatoes)
plant food only
dairy and plant foods
eggs, dairy, and plant foods
Limitations of vegan diet
- may lack adequate and complete proteins
- often lack zinc, iron, other minerals, and vitamin D
- vitamin B12 must be supplemented do to lack of animal products
Function of dietary fat
- stored energy in adipose tissue for fuel during illness and times of food restriction
- organ protection
in meat, butterfat, shortening, and vegetable oil, egg yolks, milk, and cheese
mono- "healthier" in monderation (olive oil, peanuts, and canola oil)
poly- vegetable oils, fish, and margarine.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
developed with the goal of preventing deficiency disease and reducing the risk of chronic diet- related diseases.
DRI-Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
the amount of a nutrient needed to meet the basic requirements of half the individuals in a specific group; the basis for setting the RDAs
DRI- Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA)
the level of nutrient intake sufficient to meet the needs of almost all healthy individuals of a life-stage and gender group
DRI- Adequate intake
the approximate level of an average nutrient intake determined by observation of or experimentation with a particular group or population that appears to maintain good health.
DRI- Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
the level of nutrient intake that should be exceeded to prevent adverse health risks
Calculation for RDA of protein for healthy adults
.8g/kg of body weight
Water soluble vitamins
- absorbed directly into the blood
- excreted by kidneys
- possible to reach toxic levels
- needed in frequent doses
- absorbed fist in the lymph then in the blood
- require protein carriers for transport
- stored in cells associated with fat
- more likely to reach toxic levels
- needed in periodic doses
- vitamins d,e,a,k
- functions in energy metabolism
- found in whole grain, fortified, or enriched grain products and pork
- deficiency causes muscle wasting
- is a coenzyme in the release of energy from nutrients in every cell
- found in milk products, enriched or whole grains, and liver
- deficiency= cracks in lips, scaly skin around ears
Vitamin B3- Niacin
- used in energy metabolism
- found in milk, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, whole-grains, nuts, coffee/tea
- deficiency = Pellagra (3 D's)
- helps make RBCs, aides in amino acid and protein metabolism
- used in treatment of TB, oral contraceptives affect metabolism
- found in whole grains and cereals, legumes, chicken, fish, pork, and eggs
- functions: DNA and RNA synthesis, protein synthesis, neural tube formation, and forms portion of hemoglobin.
- found in leafy green veg., legumes, fortified grains, oranges and orange juice
- deficiency= anemia, diarrhea, irritability, depression, and anxiety
Vitamin B12- Cyanocobalamin
- Intrinsic factor must be present for absorption
- functions in new cell synthesis, helps maintain nerve cells, helps break down fatty and amino acids.
- found in animal products and fortified cereals
- deficiency= anemia, smooth/sore tongue, fatigue, and degeneration of peripheral nerves.
- functions = collagen synthesis, antioxidant, thyroxin synthesis, amino acid metabolism, strengthen the immune system, and help absorption of iron.
- found in citrus fruits, broccoli, kiwi, cantaloupe, strawberries, red/green peppers, tomatoes, and potatoes.
- deficiency = scurvy, poor wound healing, frequent infections, bleeding gums, and loosened teeth.
- functions = vision, bone and tooth growth, reproduction, and immunity
- found in animal foods
- deficiency = night-blindness,
- functions in mineralization of bones, and raises bone calcium and phosphorous.
- found in sun, fortified milk, margarine, butter, beef, egg yolks, liver, and fatty fish
- deficiency = rickets (children) and osteomalacia (adults)
- calcium cannot be absorbed without sufficient vitamin D
- functions as an antioxidant
- found in margarine, salad dressing, shortenings, leafy green veg., seeds, nuts, and whole grains
- functions in synthesis of blood clotting proteins and of bone proteins that regulate blood calcium
- found in bacterial synthesis in the GI tract, liver, leafy green veg., and milk
- deficiency = hemorrhaging and skeletal weakness
Functions of water
- provide cell structure, shape, and rigidity
- regulation of body temp
- transports nutrients and waste products
- necessary for many chemical reactions
- maintains fluid and electrolyte balance, assists in impulse nerve transmission, assist in muscle contraction
- toxicity=edema and acute hypertension
- functions to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, support cell integrity, assist in nerve impulse transmission, and assist in muscle contraction
- found in all whole foods, meat, milk, fruit, vegetables, grains, and legumes
- deficiency = muscular weakness, paralysis, and confusion. May be related to dehydration, prolonged vomiting and diarrhea, regular use of diuretics, laxatives, and steroids
- functions = mineralization of bones and teeth, muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functions, blood clotting, BP, and immune defenses
- found in milk products, small fish with bones, tofu, broccoli, and legumes
- deficiency = stunted growth in children and bone loss in adults, oseoporosis
iron, zinc, iodine, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, selenium, and molybdenum.
determines fattiness by dividing persons weight in kg by height in square meters