Definition of Happiness
Not an emotion in the usual sense
An intense pleasant emotional experience in response to a particular event - a surprising gain or success of some sort.
What do people do when they are happy?
- -act more optimistically
- -approach other people more boldly than usual
- -take more chances
- -react less strongly than usual to threats
- Duchenne smile = "REAL" positive emotion
- --- Raised cheeks & crow's feet + smiling mouth
- Positive Affect Scale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)
- -has 20 items, each is a single word:
- ---participant says, on scale of 1-5, how well that word describes his/her feelings during a certain time
"TOP DOWN" vs. "BOTTOM UP"
- Top Down: Your personality or disposition controls your happiness
- Bottom Up: Life events control your happiness
When people gain wealth do they become happier?
- Right after people have won a lottery, they rate their happiness very high.
- A few months later, their happiness ratings decline to about same as ave.
***Not sufficient evidence
Wealth does not guarantee happiness, but poverty generally leads to unhappiness.
High levels contribute to extraversion and happiness
The emotional influence of whether an outcome was better or worse than some other likely outcome
Pleasure from expecting a reward
High agency in a challenging situation combined with active generation of plans that can facilitate the desired outcome
Generally defined as an expectation that mostly good things will happen
Life Orientation Test
A test often used to measure optimism
A tendency to experience fear, sadness, and anger relatively easy.
Transition from thinking about some target from one perspective to thinking about it from a completely different, but still appropriate, perspective
Feelings that enrich life, such as happiness, love, amusement, hope, compassion, pride, gratitude and awe.
Muscle that pulls mouth up in a smile
Muscle that crinkles your eye in a smile
- O + Z
- less than or equal to 4 sec
- difficult to fake
- Z only
- too fast or slow
~~~Brinkman et. al. (1978)
- Is Happiness relative? Study
- Subjects: 29 paraplegics & quadriplegics
- 22 major lottery winners
- DV: S-R happiness
- Results:Mundane pleasures: Decreased pleasure for lottery winners
- Present happiness:
- Lottery Winners: Controls
- Accident victims: some decrease
- Prior happiness: Accident victims was higher
- General Comments:
- --may take weeks or months to fully adapt
- --study looks @ long term happiness
- May increase happiness shortly after winning
~~Minnesota Twin Study~~
- Fraternal (50% genes) vs. Identical (100%) genes
- Raisd together vs. raised apart
- S-R contentment
- How happy/content are you, on ave, compared to others?
- Identical twins showed relationships in happiness when reared together or separately
- Fraternal twins showed very little, if no, relationship in happiness in either living situation
Overall Level of Happiness
- 50% genes
- 10% life events
- 40% stuff you might be able to change
- Laughter Study 1:
- Voiced vs. Unvoiced
- DV: affect of laughter on listener & attributions
- Results: Voiced > Unvoiced
- Laughter may be nonconscious strategy designed to influence other people
- Laughter Study 2:
- Is your laughter diff. in diff. contexts?
- IV: 3 social situations
- 1. alone
- 2. Friend v. stranger
- 3. Same v. opposite sex
- DV: Subject's laughter types
- Results: M & F produce song-like laughter w/friends
- Male laughs are longer & more frequent w/friends
- F diff. laugh quality w/Males