How would one go about choosing a research strategy?
- Research method
- Research design
What is research method and what categories does it include?
- these are the basic approaches to gathering informations which include:
- systemic observation
- self reports
- clinical/case studies
What is a research desing?
It is the overall plan for the study, which permits best researching the question
What are the categories of systemic observation?
- naturalistic ( in the natural environment)
- Structure ( in a lab setting and allows for focusing on one thing)
What are the categories of self report?
- Clinical intervie ( conversational style)
- Structured interview ( questionnaires)
What is a purpose of case study?
It brings to gether a wide range of information such as intervies, observation and test scores
What is ethnography?
descriptive, qualitative technique, where researcher is trying to understand another culture
What are some general research designs?
- Correlational ( reveals repationships between variables and does not reveal the cause and effect)
- Experimental( allows cause and effect statements , we can hold certain things constant)
What are factors associated with correlation coefficients?
- Magnitude (0-1)
- Direction( positive and negative)
What are the differences between dependent and independent variables?
- In independent variable , experimentor changes thing around, expected to cause changes
- for dependent variable, experimentor measures , it is expected to be influanced by the dependent variable
What is random assignment?
researchers use unbiased procedure to assign participants to a treatment.
What are the three categories of developmental research design? what are some problems associated with them?
- Longitudinal( same group studied at different times) problem is that people move or drop
- Cross sectional ( different groups studied at the same time) problem is that these are not the same people
- sequential ( combination of both)
What is the main duty of IRB?
- protection from harm
- informed consent
- beneficial treatments
What are genotype and phenotype?
- genotype is the genetic make up of a person
- phenotyoe is the observable characteristics
- Chromosomes store and transmit genetic information
- Genes are segment of dna located along the chromosome
- DNA substance of which genes and chromosomes are made
What are some examples of chromosomal abnormalities?
- Down syndrome( 21 chromosome)
- sex chromosome abnormalities ( problems with x and y)
What are some benefits of genetic counsling?
It helps couples assess chances of hereditary disorders and choose the best course of action
What are some environmental context associated with development?
- Family which is dyanmic
- SES, these families are smaller and tend to be more nurturing
- Affluance, they are well off but not emotionally available
- Towns and cities
- Cultural context
What are some familial influances on development?
- Direct: ( two person relationship)
- Adaptation changes from within or the outside
What is the difference between individualist and a collectivist?
- Individualist are people who define themselves as separate from other people
- Collectivist people are the one who define themselves as a part of a group
What is the defenition of a human development?
Studying change and constancy through the life span.
What are the continious and discontinious development?
Continious development is a process of gradually agumenting new skills. where are discontinious is new ways of understanding of the world emerge
What is nature? What is nurture?
- Nature are inborn biological givens based on genetic inheritance
- Nurture is a physical and social world , it influence biological and psychological development
What is the difference between stability and plasticity?
- Stability is wehre individuals are high or low in a character and remain so at later ages and early experiance has a life long impact
- placticity is where change is possible
What does it mean by saying lifespan is multidimensional and multidirectional?
Multidimensional is the biological and psychological and social aspect whereas multidirectional is growth or decline
What are influances on development?
- Age graded which is based on your age
- History graded which is based on the historical context
- nonnormative means it is not normal
What is a critical period ?
Certain stimuli is needed in a certain time for some aspect of development and if they don't appear the critical period would not work
What is sensetive period?
Optimal time for certain capacities to emerge such as learning a language
What is a theory?
it is an orderly integrated set of statements that describe, explain and predict behaviour
What are theories of Freud? and what are his three parts of the personality?
- Psychoanalytic theory
- Psychosexual theory
- the three stages are : ID, Ego and superego
What are the stages of Freud psychosexual theory?
What are theories of Erikson?
Psychoanalytic and psychosocial theory which states that ego requires attitude and skills that make the individual active contributing member of society.
What is the Bandura theory?
- Social learning theory where you observe a model and immitate the midels's actions and get the consequances.
- vicarious reinforcement: where people don't break rules since they have seen the consequances
- Efficiacy: your beliefes about whether you can accompish a certain task
What are the three categories of behaviorism?
- Classical conditioning
- Operant conditioning
- Social learning
What is the Piaget theory? and what are the stages?
- Kids are little scientists
What is the vygotsky theory?
- sociocultural theory where social interactions are a must
- transmission of a culture to the next generation.
What are the categories of the ecological system?
- Micro ( one on one)
- Meso ( interaction with micro)
- Exo( extended familu)
- Macro( cultural and overall)
What are the key evens happening through the zygote state?
Key events of embryo are:
- Formation of arms/legs/ face
- muscles all develope
- Heart beat
When is the fastest period of growth in the infant?
within the first six month
What are the stages associated with the early brain development?
- Plasticity: brain adapts to change
- Myelination : covering of axon , allows for faster communication
- synaptic pruning: usage of different pathways and the ones that are used more get stronger
What are some regions of the cerebral cortex?
- Frontal lobe
- Parietal lobe
- Occipital lobe
- Temporal lobe
Lateralization of cerebral cortex:
- 1. sensory information and control of right side of the body, verbal abilities , positive emotions and analytical processing
- 2. sensory information and control of left side of the body, spatial abilities, negative emotions andn intefrative processing
What are some factors influancing the early growth?
- Emotional well being
What are major mile stones in motor development?
- holding head steady
- Sitting alone
- Pulling to stand up
- Walking alone
What are the categories of the building schemes?
- Adaptation: building schemes through direct interaction with environment
- Assimilation : use the same schemes
- Accomidation: use different schemes
What are the domains of core knowledge?
What is the zone of proximal development?
Degree we can do better with a help of a pro
What are three theories of language development?
- Behaviourist: opperant conditioning
What are some factors associated with individual differences in motor skills?
- Caregiver encourage
What are stages of piaget's preoperational stage?
- Gain in mental representation
- Limitation in thinking
What are some benefits associated with make believe?
- Practice representational schemes
- Reflect on thinking , control behaviour
- Gain in social and language skills
- Improve attention and memory
- Strengthten imagination
What are the limitation to conservation?
- centration: focus on one aspect and neglect others
- irreversibility: can not mentally reverse
What does vygotsky sociocultural theory include?
- Private speech
- Zone of proximal development
What are the three most important categories of erikson psychosocial stages?
- Autonomy Vs. shame
- Basic trust Vs. Mistrust
- Initiative Vs. Guilt
What is temperment associated with?
- Reactivity: Emotional arousal, Attention, Motor activity
- Self regulation
What are 3 categories of temperment?
- Easy child
- Difficult child
- Slow to warm up
What are some biological bases associated with temperment?
Inhibited or shy kid Vs. Uninhibited social kid
What are stages of self development?
- Self awareness : from birth
- Self recoganition: emerge in the 2 year
- Empathy: aided by self awareness
What are stages of attatchment?
- attachment in the making
- clearcut attachment
- formation of a reciprocal relationship
What are types of attatchment?
- Secure : cry at separation and then soothed
- Insecure: avoidant, resistant , disorganized
What are the categories of peer sociability in play:
- Parallel play
What are cognatice play categories?
- Functional play
- Make believe
What are parental influances on early relationships?
- Direct effects: arrange informal peer activities
- Indirect: secure attachment
What is the prosocial behaviour?
helping, sharing and cooprating
What are types of aggression:
- Hostile ( physical, verbal or relational)
What are some theories associated with gender ID?
- Social learning
- Cognetive development
- Genger schema
What are child raring styles?Authoritative