PSYC 153

  1. Social-Cognitive Perspective
    • Primitive Form:
    • ~Urge: Stop interaction btwn. LO & Rival
    • Elaborated Form:
    • ~With age, meaning of interaction becomes imp.
    • threats to: self-concept, self-esteem, relationship rewards
  2. ~~~HART (1998)~~~
    • Subjects: 6 mo. w/no siblings
    • Watch mother interacting w/doll or book that makes noises
    • IV: Mom plays w/doll vs. non social toy
    • DV: Facial expressions & behavior
    • Results: Negative affect doll > Toy
  3. ~~~Masciuch & Kienapple~~~
    • Subjects: 4.5 mos. - 7 yrs. old
    • IV: Mom interacts w/infant vs. same-aged peer
    • DV: behaviors
    • Results: 8.5 mos. = some jealousy reactions
    • 1.5 yrs. = definie jealousy
    • 3.5 yrs. = differences in jealousy over peer vs. infant (peer > infant)
    • * Jealousy not effected by rival's age @ younger age
  4. Jealousy over Infidelity
    • --Frequently cause for divorce
    • --Motive for murder
    • --12-16% of murder across cultures
  5. Evolutionary Psychology
    • Believes men are hard-wired/programmed to like certain hip-to-waist ratio (.7)
    • Sexual jealousy mechanism
    • JSIM = Jealousy as a specific innate module theory
  6. Evolutionary Psychology Perspective
    • -Men's jealousy triggered by sexual acts
    • -Women's jealousy triggered by emotional bonding/love
  7. Sexual Jealousy Module
    Problem = Cuckoldry
  8. Emotional Jealousy Module
    Problem = Resource diversion
  9. ~~~ Buss et. al. Study ~~~
    • Forced-choice hypothetical scenario:
    • What would upset you more?
    • (a) imagining emotional infidelity
    • (b) imagining sexual infidelity
    • % choosing sexual in U.S.:
    • 25% of women
    • 50% of men
  10. Contrast between JSIM & Social-Cognitive approaches
    • JSIM:
    • Type of threat & role of cognitive appraisal: Cognition confined to detection of infidelity
    • Emotional process specific to infidelity: Yes. Mechanisms specific to mating.

    • Social-Cognitive:
    • Type of threat & role of cognitive appraisal: Cognition/Appraisal imp., many possible threats (ex: to self, to relationship)
    • Emotional process specific to infidelity: No. Same jealousy process across interpersonal contexts
  11. ~~~Adult Study of REAL Infidelity~~~
    HARRIS (2002)
    • Subjects: 196 adults
    • Measures: (1) F-C Infidelity ?s
    • (2) Reactions to mate's actual infidelity
    • --Degree of focus on sexual vs. emotional infidelity
    • Results: Actual infidelity: on ave, Focus on EMOTIONAL > SEXUAL
    • ----->problem for JSIM: men did not overall report sexual aspects more troublesome
    • *Men & Women's experiences more similar than different
  12. Definition of Envy
    • An unpleasant emotional experience that arises in a social situation in which one desires what another possesses
    • -"Dual Focus"
  13. ~~~Smith & colleagues~~~
    • -differentiate btwn. "benign" & "malicious" envy
    • ----Malicious envy includes some form of anger, hostility, or ill will
  14. ~~~D'Arms & Kerr~~~
    • -Argue that there is no such thing as benign envy, which is just desire/longing.
    • It is only envy if one not only experiences an unpleasant emotion due to the rival having something one desires-but furthermore desires that he/she lose it.
  15. ~~~Leach~~~
    -Envy is type of anger that arises when one has a frustrated desire for something another possesses, which one feels one should & could have.
  16. ~~~Smith & colleagues~~~
    • Differentiate "objective" from "subjective" resentment
    • objective: others would agree that there is an injustice
    • subjective: the enviers are likely not to find social support for their sense of grievance, which is more aptly termed envy
  17. Schadenfreude
    • Pleasure at another's pain
    • --Linked to envious reactions
  18. ~~~White & Mullen (1989)~~~
    Proposed that jealousy should not be viewed as a distinct emotion or even a blend of emotions, but rather as a label for a complex interpersonal situation tht elicits various negative emotional reactions.
  19. ~~~Hupka (1984)~~~
    Found subjects offered diff. emotional labels depending on what aspect of situation was highlighted
  20. ~~~Parrott (1991)~~~
    -Proposed 6 diff. emotional reactions that can be part of an envious episode.
  21. ~~~Brosnan & de Waal (2003)~~~
    Capuchin monkey experiment with fairness.
  22. Factors that arouse envy
    • Similarity
    • Domain relevance
    • Change in status
    • Relationship closeness
    • Physical presence
    • Specific Hard-wired triggers
  23. ~~~Vidaillet~~~
    • Importance of a third party (the Other)
    • --can be an individual or a social group
    • By the very act of envying, the envier implicitly accepts the value system of the other(s)
  24. ~~~Lindholm~~
    • Studies on envy across cultures
    • --Swat people particularly prone to envy
  25. ~~Schimmel~
    • Guidelines offered by Judaism to counter envy
    • 1. Try not to compare one's own achievements to others' but be the best one can be
    • 2. Focus not on the envied person but rather on the quality he possesses to channel energy towards possessing it
    • 3. Accept what God has given & hope things will be diff. in afterlife
  26. The "evil eye"
    • Gives envier a sense of power
    • Causes envied to fear loss
  27. "Sex Differences in Jealousy"
    ~~David M. Buss, and colleagues~~
    • Males face cuckoldry
    • Females face loss of time, resources, & commitment from male
    • STUDY 1: Subjective Distress over a partner's external involvement
    • --males reported greater distress in response to sexual infidelity than emotional infidelity
    • STUDY 2: Physiological responses to a partner's external involvement
    • --Men showed significant increases in EDA during sexual imagergy compared w/emotional imagery
    • --Women showed greater EDA to emotional infidelity
    • STUDY 3: Contexts that activate the jealousy mechanism
    • --Direct experience of relevant context during development may be necessary for activation of sex-linked weighting of jealousy activation
  28. "Double-Shot" or "Two-for-One"
  29. -Men tend to think sexual infidelity would be more distressing because they infer that if a woman has sex with another man, she is probably also in love with him.
    -Women tend to believe that men can have sex without being in love.
  30. ~~David DeSteno~~
    • "cognitive load manipulation"
    • --asked subjects to remember string of 7 digits while answering ?s
    • Results:
    • Did not change males' responses
    • Females shifted toward picking sexual infidelity as more powerful jealousy trigger
    • --Suggests F responses may reflect inferences--tendency of subjects to give answers that present a desired impression of themselves
  31. "Morbid jealousy"
    Used to describe patients who display a conviction, most often delusional, that their mate is cheating on them.
Card Set
PSYC 153
Jealousy & Envy