- Primitive Form:
- ~Urge: Stop interaction btwn. LO & Rival
- Elaborated Form:
- ~With age, meaning of interaction becomes imp.
- threats to: self-concept, self-esteem, relationship rewards
- Subjects: 6 mo. w/no siblings
- Watch mother interacting w/doll or book that makes noises
- IV: Mom plays w/doll vs. non social toy
- DV: Facial expressions & behavior
- Results: Negative affect doll > Toy
~~~Masciuch & Kienapple~~~
- Subjects: 4.5 mos. - 7 yrs. old
- IV: Mom interacts w/infant vs. same-aged peer
- DV: behaviors
- Results: 8.5 mos. = some jealousy reactions
- 1.5 yrs. = definie jealousy
- 3.5 yrs. = differences in jealousy over peer vs. infant (peer > infant)
- * Jealousy not effected by rival's age @ younger age
Jealousy over Infidelity
- --Frequently cause for divorce
- --Motive for murder
- --12-16% of murder across cultures
- Believes men are hard-wired/programmed to like certain hip-to-waist ratio (.7)
- Sexual jealousy mechanism
- JSIM = Jealousy as a specific innate module theory
Evolutionary Psychology Perspective
- -Men's jealousy triggered by sexual acts
- -Women's jealousy triggered by emotional bonding/love
Sexual Jealousy Module
Problem = Cuckoldry
Emotional Jealousy Module
Problem = Resource diversion
~~~ Buss et. al. Study ~~~
- Forced-choice hypothetical scenario:
- What would upset you more?
- (a) imagining emotional infidelity
- (b) imagining sexual infidelity
- % choosing sexual in U.S.:
- 25% of women
- 50% of men
Contrast between JSIM & Social-Cognitive approaches
- Type of threat & role of cognitive appraisal: Cognition confined to detection of infidelity
- Emotional process specific to infidelity: Yes. Mechanisms specific to mating.
- Type of threat & role of cognitive appraisal: Cognition/Appraisal imp., many possible threats (ex: to self, to relationship)
- Emotional process specific to infidelity: No. Same jealousy process across interpersonal contexts
~~~Adult Study of REAL Infidelity~~~
- Subjects: 196 adults
- Measures: (1) F-C Infidelity ?s
- (2) Reactions to mate's actual infidelity
- --Degree of focus on sexual vs. emotional infidelity
- Results: Actual infidelity: on ave, Focus on EMOTIONAL > SEXUAL
- ----->problem for JSIM: men did not overall report sexual aspects more troublesome
- *Men & Women's experiences more similar than different
Definition of Envy
- An unpleasant emotional experience that arises in a social situation in which one desires what another possesses
- -"Dual Focus"
~~~Smith & colleagues~~~
- -differentiate btwn. "benign" & "malicious" envy
- ----Malicious envy includes some form of anger, hostility, or ill will
~~~D'Arms & Kerr~~~
- -Argue that there is no such thing as benign envy, which is just desire/longing.
- It is only envy if one not only experiences an unpleasant emotion due to the rival having something one desires-but furthermore desires that he/she lose it.
-Envy is type of anger that arises when one has a frustrated desire for something another possesses, which one feels one should & could have.
~~~Smith & colleagues~~~
- Differentiate "objective" from "subjective" resentment
- objective: others would agree that there is an injustice
- subjective: the enviers are likely not to find social support for their sense of grievance, which is more aptly termed envy
- Pleasure at another's pain
- --Linked to envious reactions
~~~White & Mullen (1989)~~~
Proposed that jealousy should not be viewed as a distinct emotion or even a blend of emotions, but rather as a label for a complex interpersonal situation tht elicits various negative emotional reactions.
Found subjects offered diff. emotional labels depending on what aspect of situation was highlighted
-Proposed 6 diff. emotional reactions that can be part of an envious episode.
~~~Brosnan & de Waal (2003)~~~
Capuchin monkey experiment with fairness.
Factors that arouse envy
- Domain relevance
- Change in status
- Relationship closeness
- Physical presence
- Specific Hard-wired triggers
- Importance of a third party (the Other)
- --can be an individual or a social group
- By the very act of envying, the envier implicitly accepts the value system of the other(s)
- Studies on envy across cultures
- --Swat people particularly prone to envy
- Guidelines offered by Judaism to counter envy
- 1. Try not to compare one's own achievements to others' but be the best one can be
- 2. Focus not on the envied person but rather on the quality he possesses to channel energy towards possessing it
- 3. Accept what God has given & hope things will be diff. in afterlife
The "evil eye"
- Gives envier a sense of power
- Causes envied to fear loss
"Sex Differences in Jealousy"
~~David M. Buss, and colleagues~~
- Males face cuckoldry
- Females face loss of time, resources, & commitment from male
- STUDY 1: Subjective Distress over a partner's external involvement
- --males reported greater distress in response to sexual infidelity than emotional infidelity
- STUDY 2: Physiological responses to a partner's external involvement
- --Men showed significant increases in EDA during sexual imagergy compared w/emotional imagery
- --Women showed greater EDA to emotional infidelity
- STUDY 3: Contexts that activate the jealousy mechanism
- --Direct experience of relevant context during development may be necessary for activation of sex-linked weighting of jealousy activation
"Double-Shot" or "Two-for-One"
-Men tend to think sexual infidelity would be more distressing because they infer that if a woman has sex with another man, she is probably also in love with him.
-Women tend to believe that men can have sex without being in love.
- "cognitive load manipulation"
- --asked subjects to remember string of 7 digits while answering ?s
- Did not change males' responses
- Females shifted toward picking sexual infidelity as more powerful jealousy trigger
- --Suggests F responses may reflect inferences--tendency of subjects to give answers that present a desired impression of themselves
Used to describe patients who display a conviction, most often delusional, that their mate is cheating on them.