When sufficient amounts of dopamine or norepinephrine have been synthesized these neurotransmitters will inhibit the activity of the enzyme __________. This is a classic example of _______________.
Tyrosine hydroxylase; Negative feedback
Newly synthesized catecholamines are stored in vessicles by a protein found in the vessicle membrane called ________________. This protein is called _________ in the brain and _________ in the adrenal medulla
T/F The amount of neurotransmitter stored in a vessicle varies from vessicle to vessicle.
False, it is always the same
An experimental drug called _________ blocks VMAT1 preventing transport of NE and DA into vessicles. This causes sensations of ______/______ in the animal who has taken it.
Pre-synaptic autoreceptors reduce calcium influx into the cell when they bind neurotransmitter inhibiting further release into the synapse. The dopamine autoreceptor is called _________ and the norepinephrine autoreceptor is called ________
Cathecholamines that are released into the synapse are broken down by two different enzymes. One is called ________ and the other is called _________.
T/F MAO is present in the pre and post-synaptic neurons while COMT is only found post-synaptically.
What is volume transmission? What does it allow for?
Volume transmission occurs when neurotransmitter is released along the axon into the extracellular fluid (no traditional synapse); This creates a neurotransmitter "bath" and allows for stronger, faster, and more global communication.
What are the names of the two acetylcholine receptors? What type of receptor is each?
Nicotinic (iontropic); Muscarinic (metabotropic)
The enzyme ___________ is responsible for breaking down acetylcholine in the synapse. Once broken down, _______ is the component only that the cell reuptakes.
Acetylcholine is rapidly metabolized especially when it is released at a ________________. This allows for ____________.
Neuromuscular junction; precise control of the muscles
__________________ is an autoimmune disorder where antibodies bind to acetylcholine receptors and degrade them resulting in _____________, __________, and eventually ___________.
Myasthenia gravis; progressive muscle atrophy; respiratory depression; death
What effect does stress have on the blood brain barrier?
It makes is a less effective barrier
During the Gulf War soldiers were given pyridostigmine, an ______________ to protect them from nerve gas.
In the ______________ of the autonomic nervous system both preganglionic and ganglionic neurons use acetylcholine as their primary neurotransmitter; In the _______________ acetylcholine is only used by preganglionic neurons while ______________ is used by ganglionic neurons.
What brain system uses acetylcholine as its primary neurotransmitter and is used for higher level cognitive functioning such as learning, memory, and attention?
The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS)
Which acetylcholine receptor is ionotropic, composed of 5 protein subunits, and most highly concentrated at neuromuscular junctions where it mediates fast excitatory responses in the autonomic nervous system?
Nicotinic receptors can become __________ desensitized to _____________ when they are continuously exposed to it.
Muscarine is an agonist of the muscarinic receptor and is naturally found in the ___________.
Fly agaric mushroom
T/F Muscarinic receptors are ionotropic.
Overall the muscarinic receptors is ____________. It can act on effector enzymes to ________ levels of cAMP or it can stimulate the opening of _____________ resulting in hyperpolarization.
Inhibitory; decrease; K+ ion channels
The muscarinic receptor has __ subtypes (__-__). Research has shown that the __ receptor is required to feel the rewarding effects of ________.
5; M1-M5; M5; opiates
____________ is the first precursor molecule in the synthesis of serotonin.
In the ______________ step of serotonin synthesis tryptophan is converted into ________ using the enzyme ____________.
Rate-limiting; 5-HTP; tyrptophan hydroxylase
5-HTP is converted to serotonin by the enzyme _____________.
Aromotic amino acid decarboxylase (same enzyme used in synthesis of DA and NE)
____________ is involved in food addiction/obesity because foods high in carbohydrates/sugar contain its precursor ___________. Consumption these types of foods causes a surge in __________ which has calming and antidepressant effects.
Serotonin; tryptophan; serotonin
Dietary tryptophan has to compete with ___________________ when it attempts to cross the blood brain barrier.
Large neutral amino acids
____ is the somatodendritic serotonin autoreceptor and when stimulated it will ______; ___ & ___ are the terminal/synaptic autoreceptors and when stimulated they will ___________.
5-HT1A; slow the firing rate of the cell; 5-HT1B; 5-HT1D; inhibit further release of serotonin
Serotonergic cell bodies are located in the ___________ and the firing rate of the neurons in this area is important for the regulation of the _______________.
Ralphae nucleus; sleep/wake cycles
Serotonergic activity facilitates ______________ while inhibiting ____________.
Output of motor systems; sensory processing
T/F Serotonergic cells bodies have the highest firing rate during sleep
There are __ subtypes of serotonergic receptors most of which are ______________.
5-HT1A receptors are concentrated in the _______, ________, and _________. These receptors are involved in the ___________, __________, and _____________.
Hippocampus; amygdala; forebrain; regulation of eating; anxiety; temperature regulation
_____ serotonergic receptors inhibit cAMP causing neuron _____________ and a subsequent decrease in firing rate.
5-HT2A serotonergic receptors are concentrated in the _______, _________, and __________. These receptors are involved in __________.