1. Trapezius
    • O- occipital protuberance of skull, ligamentum nuchae, and 12 thoracic spines
    • I- lateral 1/3 clavicle, acrominon, spine of scapula
    • A- suspends shoulder, elevate (upper), depress (lower), upward rot (upper and lower), add of scap (middle)
    • N- spinal accessory
  2. Latissimus Dorsi
    • O- lower thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae, post iliac crest, inf angle of scap
    • I- intertubercular groove of humerus
    • A- Ext, add, medial rot humerus
    • N- thoracodorsal
  3. Levator scapulae
    • O- transverse processes of upper cervical vertebrae
    • I- upper medial border of scap
    • A- elevates and assists in downward rot of scap
    • N- Dorsal scapular
  4. Rhomboid major and minor
    • O- lower part of ligamentum nuchae, spines of upper thoracic vertebrae
    • I- post medial border of scap (minor at level of spine, major below spine)
    • A- elevates, downward rot, add (retract)
    • N- dorsal scapular
  5. Splenius capitus and cervicis
    • O- ligamentum nuchae, spines of lower cervical, upper thoracic
    • I- skull and transverse processes of upper cervical vertebrae
    • A- ext head and neck (bilateral), rotate face and flex head and neck to ipsilateral side in unilateral contraction
    • N- dorsal rami of spinal nerves
  6. Erector spinae
    • O- posterior sacrum, iliac crest, spines of lumbar vertebrae
    • I- iliocostalis: ribs and transverse processes of cerv vert; longissimus: transverse processes and skull; spinalis: spinous processes of vert (blends with semispinalis)
    • A-ext vert column and head w/ bilateral contractions; lateral flexion to right is controlled by left erector spine muscles
    • N- Dorsal (post) rami of spinal nerve
  7. Transverso-spinalis
    • O- articular, transverse, mamillary processes of vert
    • I- semispinalis: 4 to 6 cervical vert and skull; multifidus: 2 to 4 spinous processes of cerv, thor, lumb vert; rotatores: 1 to 2 spinous processes
    • A- extend vert column; rot vert column to contralateral side; ext of head
    • N- dorsal (post) rami of spinal nerve
  8. Scapula
    • posteriorlateral to chest wall
    • posterior and anterior surface
    • has three borders, three angles, and three processes
  9. posterior (dorsal) surface of scapula
    • has the spine of the scapula which begins medial border and continuous laterally with the acromion
    • the spine seperates the supraspinous fossa (above) and infraspinous fossa (below)
  10. anterior (costal) surface of scapula
    • subscapular fossa
    • forward projection- coracoid process
  11. Three borders
    • Superior- thin and sharp; has a suprascapular notch
    • Lateral-
    • Medial-veterabral border
  12. Three angles
    • Superior angle
    • Inferior angle- overlies the seventh rib/intercostal space of the chest wall
    • Lateral angle- has the glenoid cavity with the supra and infra glenoid tubercles for attachment of muscles
  13. Clavicle
    • can be palpated along its entire length
    • lateral end articulates with the acromion of the scapula (Acromioclavicular [AC]joint)
    • medial end articulates with the sternum (Sternoclavicular [SC] joint)
  14. superficial muscles of the back
    • Trapezius
    • Latissimus Dorsi
  15. Second layer of superficial muscles of the back
    • Levator Scapulae
    • Rhomboid major and minor
  16. movements of the scapula
    upward rotation
    downward rotation
    • upper trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboid minor and major
    • lower traps
    • serratus anterior with pectoralis minor
    • middle trapezius, rhomboid major and minor
    • upper and lower trapezius and serratus anterior
    • levator scapulae, pectoralis minor
  17. Thoracolumbar fascia
    • posterior layer is attached spines of lumbar and sacral vertebrae, including supraspinous ligament
    • middle layer is attached to the lumbar transverse processes and iliac crest
    • anterior layer is attached to lumbar transverse processescovers quadratus lumborum
  18. interspinales
    attached to the spines of adjacent vertebrae
  19. intertransversarii
    located between adjacent transverse processes
  20. deep muscles of the back
    • splenius
    • erector spinae
    • transverospinalis
  21. splenius
    • O- ligamentum nuchae, lower cervical and thoracic vertebrae
    • I- capitus onto the skull; cervicus on the transverse processes of the cervical vert
    • F- bilaterally extend the head; unilaterally flex the head and neck to the ipsilateral side and slightly rotate
    • N- dorsal rami
  22. erector spinae
    • O- post sacram, illiac crest, spines of lumbar vertebrae, lower two thoracic spines
    • I- Illiocostalis onto the ribs and the transverse processes of the cervical vertabrae; longissimus onto the transverse process of the vertebrae and skull; spinalis onto the spinous processes of the vertebrae and the upper part blends with semispinalis
    • F- bilateral extend the back when over gravity contralateral muscles pull up ; upper portion extend head and turn head to same side
    • N- dorsal rami
  23. transversospinalis
    • O- articular transverse or mamillary process
    • I- semispinalis onto the 4 to 6 segments spinous processes of throcic and cervical vert. and skull; multifidus 2 to 4 segments spinous process of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar; rotatores 1 to 2 segments spinous processes
    • F- extend back bilaterally; unilateral to rotate trunk to contralateral side
    • N- dorsal rami
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