Vital Signs (initial assessment)

  1. The 5 vital signs
    • Blood pressure
    • Respirations
    • Pulse
    • Skin (color, temp, condition)
    • Pupils
  2. S.A.M.P.L.E.
    • Signs & Symptoms
    • Allergies
    • Medications taken
    • Past pertinent history
    • Last oral taken
    • Events leading to injury or illness
  3. Acronym for determining level of consciousness
    • AVPU
    • Alert, Verbal, Painful, Unresponsive
  4. Skin color: Pale
    Constricted blood vessels possibly resulting from blood loss, shock, hypotention, emotional distress
  5. Skin color: Cyanotic (blue-gray)
    Lack of oxygen in blood cells and tissues resulting from inadequate breathing or heart function
  6. Skin color: Jaundiced (yellow)
    Abnormalties of the liver
  7. An indication of a patient's condition that can be seen, heard, smelled, or felt that is observed by another person
    (sweaty skin, staggering, vomitting)
  8. An indication of a patient's condition that cannot be observed by another person but rather is subjective, or felt and reported by the patient
    (pain, dizziness, nausea)
    • Symptom
  9. Pupil appearance:
    • Fright
    • Blood loss
    • Drugs
    • Treatment w/ prescription eye drops
  10. Pupil appearance: Constricted
    • Drugs (narcotics)
    • Treatment w/ prescription eye drops
  11. Pupil appearance: Unequal
    • Stroke
    • Head injury
    • Eye injury
    • Articial eye
  12. Pupil appearance: Lack of reactivity
    • Drugs
    • Lack of oxygen to brain
  13. The pressure created when the heart contracts and forces blood out into the arteries
    Systolic BP (top)
  14. The pressure remaining in the arteries when the left ventricle of the heart is relaxed and refilling
    Diastolic BP (bottom)
  15. Medications an EMT-B can administer or assist with:
    • Activated charcoal
    • Oral glucose
    • Oxygen
    • Prescribed inhalers
    • Nitroglycerin
    • Epinephrine auto-injectors
  16. A treatment for a consicous patient (who is able to swallow) with an altered mental status and a history of diabetes
    Oral glucose
  17. A drug that helps to dilate the coronary vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood
  18. A drug that helps to constrict the blood vessels and relax passages of the airway. Maybe used to counter a severe allergic reaction
  19. INDICTIONS to administer Nitroglycerin
    • Complaints of chest pain
    • History of cardiac problems
    • Dr. has prescribed
    • Systolic BP is greater than 90-100
    • Medical direction has authorized
  20. CONTRAINDICATIONS to administer Nitroglycerin
    • Systolic BP below 90-100 (hypotention)
    • Pulse rate below 50 or above 100
    • Head injury
    • Patient is child or infant
    • Erectile dysfunction meds has been recently taken
    • Has taken max. dosage (3 times)
  21. Cardiac arrest in the adult population is most often the result of:
    Cardiac arrhythmias
  22. Initial assessment
    • Mental status
    • Airway
    • Breathing
    • Circulation
    • Priority
  23. Scene size up
    • Scene safety
    • Mech of injury/nature od illness
    • # of patients
    • Additional help
  24. Edema means?
  25. Diaphoresis
    Perspiration (sweaty)
  26. Describe Hypoglycemia
    • (insulin shock)
    • Cool, Clammy skin, and rapid onset
  27. Describe Hyperglycemia
    • (Diabetic coma)
    • Warm. Dry skin, and slow onset
    • (sometimes occuring over a period of days)
  28. Two indications for removing an impaled object on a patient
    • The object is causing airway compromise
    • When the object interferes with your ability to perform CPR
  29. Closed head injuries can cause a variety of signs and symptoms such as:
    • "Cushing's triad"
    • Hypertension
    • Bradycardia
    • Altered respirations (slow & irregular to rapid & deep)
  30. A convulsion associated with a significant rise in body temperature. Most commonly occur in children between the ages of 6 months and 6 years and are twice as common in boys as in girls
    Febrile seizure
  31. Appropriate treatment for a child following a febrile seizure
    • Ensure a patent airway
    • Administer oxygen
    • Remove clothing
    • Apply moist tepid towels (to lower body temp)
    • Transport
  32. The most common cause of cardiac arrest in children
    Respiratory failure
  33. One of the most reliable indicators of perfusion in children 6 and younger
    Capillary refill
  34. After an initial attempt to ventilate a patient fails, you reposition the patient's head and reattempt ventilation without success. You should next
    Initiate airway obstruction removal techniques and provide transport
  35. A systemic reaction following ingestion of a poison
    Tachycardia and hypotension
  36. Airway management of a patient with labored, shallow breathing should consist of
    Positive pressure ventilations
  37. Skin will become cyanotic with a decrease in the amount of
    Arterial oxygen
  38. The most reliable indicator of an underlying injury
    The presence of palpable pain
  39. Children with no fever who have a sudden onset of respiratory distress is likely the result of
    Obstruction of the airway by a foreign body
  40. The position most appropriate for a mother in labor with a prolapsed umbilical cord
    Supine with hips elevated
  41. When is it most appropriate to clamp and cut the umbilical cord
    As soon as the cord stops pulsating
  42. If a mother has a moderate amount of bleeding following delivery of a newborn, the most appropriate management includes
    treating her for shock and providing immediate transport
  43. What is a pulmonary surfactant
    A lubricant that lines the alveolar walls and allows them to expand and recoil
  44. Urticaria
  45. Initial management of a patient with a suspected allergic reaction
    Provide 100% oxygen
  46. If a joint is injured how should you immbolize it
    In the position it was found
  47. Signs of cardiac compromise
    • Pain in the chest or epigastric area
    • Nausea
    • Irregular pulse (fast or slow)
  48. The wall that separates the left and right sides of the heart
  49. AED's are only used on patients who are
    Pulseless and apneic (not breathing)
  50. After delivery of a shock from an AED if the patient has a return of a pulse; you should next?
    Assess the airway and ventilatory status
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Vital Signs (initial assessment)
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