Biology Semester 2 Final

  1. What are autotrophs?
    Organisms that make their own food
  2. What are two things that an autotroph does?
    • 1.) absorb the energy of sunlight
    • 2.) make carbohydrates
  3. Who discovered photosynthesis?
    Van Helmet
  4. What are the 3 requirements of photosynthesis?
    • 1.) Energy (light)
    • 2.) Matter CO2 and H2O
    • 3.) Place- Chloroplasts
  5. What is the GRANA in photosynthesis?
    Membranes with pigments to absorb light
  6. What is the STROMA in photosynthesis?
    Liquid medium for chemical reactions
  7. What are the two phases of photosynthesis?
    • 1.) Photophase (aka "light reactions")
    • 2.) Synthesis Phase (aka "dark reactions")
  8. Name the 6 things that happens during photophase
    • a) light energy is absorbed by pigment in grana
    • b) energy splits water into 2H+, 2e-&0
    • c) Oxygen is released into the air
    • d) energy from the 2e makes 2ATP
    • e) 2e and 2H+ picked up by NADP+ and carried to stroma as NADPH
    • f) ATP diffuses to stroma
  9. What are the three stages of the sythesis phase?
    • a) CO2 is absorbed into the stroma
    • b) CO2 combines with e- and H+ (from NADPH) to form glucose in the Calvin Cycle
    • c) energy is from ATP and e-
  10. Equation for Photosynthesis??
    • 6CO2+6H2O+LIGHT-----> C6H12O6+6O2
    • Image Upload 1
  11. What are the four factor that affect photosynthesis?
    • 1. Concentration of CO2
    • 2. Light intensity
    • 3. Consentration of H2O
    • 4. Temperature
  12. As CO2 increases the rate of what increases?
  13. As temperature rises, the rate of photosynthesis what?
  14. What is cellular respiration?
    an aerobic process that requires oxygen
  15. Where does cellular respiration take place?
    cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria
  16. What uses cellular respiration?
    Heterotrophs and Autotrophs
  17. What are the three requirements of cellular respiration?
    • 1. Energy source
    • 2. Oxygen and Water
    • 3. Place
  18. What are the four phases of Respiration?
    • 1. Glycolosis
    • 2. Transition
    • 3. Kreb's Citric Acid Cycle
    • 4. Oxydative Phosphorylation
  19. What is glycolosis?
    An anaerobic phase in the cytoplasm
  20. What is transition?
    An aerobic process in the matrix of mitochondria
  21. What is the Kreb's Citric Acid Cycle?
    An aerobic process in the matrix of Mitochondria
  22. What is oxydative phosphorylation?
    An aerobic process in christae and mitochondria
  23. What happens in Glycolysis?
    • 1.Glucose (6C) is split into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID (2X3c)
    • 2. 4e-and 4H+ released to NAD+ to form NADH
    • 3. 2ATP used and 4ATP made
  24. What happens during transition?
    • 1. breakdown of 2 pyruvic acid to 2 acetyl CoA and 2CO2
    • 2. 4e- and 4H+ released to NAD to form NADH
    Organisms pass energy and biomass by eating and/or being eaten
    Interconnected food chains in an ecosystem
  27. What are the trophic levels?
    • -herbivores
    • -carnivores
    • -detritivores
    • -omnivores
    • -decomposers
  28. What are the two main trophic levels?
    • -Consumers
    • -Producers
  29. What happens in a food pyramid?
  30. What is interdependence?
    ecological concept that all living things affect and are affected by the other living things within their ecosystem/habitat
  31. What is an ecosystem?
    area where living things and noliving environment interact to maintain balance
  32. Living organisms in an ecosystem
    • consumers
    • producers
    • decomposers
  33. Nonliving enviroment
    • chemical components
    • energy source
    • climate- precipitation, temperature, wind direction
    • topography- shape of the land
  34. What is a habitat?
    Area within an ecosystem where a species of an organism that fills a niche
  35. What is a niche?
    full range of physical and biological conditions in shich a population lives and the way in which a population uses these conditions
  36. What are the "requirements" of a niche?
    • a. temperature range it requires
    • b. shelter it requires
    • c. position in the food web
    • d. resources it uses
    • e. resources it leaves behind
  37. Water cycle stages
    • a. condensation
    • b. precipitation
    • c. seepage (percolation)
    • d. runoff
    • e. root uptake (absorption)
    • f. evaporation, transpiration, perspiration
  38. Carbon cycle stages
    • a. photosynthesis
    • b. respiration
    • c. food chain
    • d. deconposition
    • e. combustion
  39. Nitrogen cycle stages
    • a. nitrogen fixation
    • b. nitrification
    • c. anabolism
    • d. food chain
    • e. decomposition
    • f. denitrification
  40. Phosphate cycle stages
    • a. dissolution
    • b. root uptake (absorption)
    • c. anabolism
    • d. food chain
    • e. decomposition
    • f. sedimentation
  41. What is the rate at which organic matter is produced by plants in an ecosystem?
    Primary productivity
  42. Which organisms most likely return nutrients to soil?
  43. Branch of biology dealing with interactions among organisms and their environment
  44. Origional source of energy in an ecosystem?
  45. trophic levels
    steps in food chain or web
  46. Energy and biomass flow in an ecosystem can be expressed as a pyramid because......
    less energy + biomass stored in higher trophic levels of food web
  47. What is competition?
    Organisms in overlapping niches use some of the same resources or eat some of the same food
  48. What is predatation ?
    • organisms on adjoining trophic levels on the food chain
    • a. predator eats prey
    • b. each affects the others population
  49. what is symbiosis?
    • unrelated species in an ecosystem that live in a close relationship
    • a. mutualism- each species benefits from the other
    • b. commensalism- one species benefits and the other is unaffected
    • c. parasitism- the parasite benefits and the host is harmed
  50. Ecological succesion
    • constant change within an ecosystem as a response to natural phenomena and/or human disturbances
    • a. older inhabitants move out
    • b. new organisms more in
  51. Primary succession
    • a. succession on land where no soil exists
    • b. pioneer species take hold
    • c. decay forms soil
  52. secondary succession
    • a. disturbance changes a community without removing soil
    • b. plant seeds enter the area and repopulate the land
  53. Climax community
    • a. mature stable community
    • b. no more succession or too slow to be noticed
  54. Independent assortment
    genes for different traits separate independently of one another
  55. principle of segregation
    paired alleles seperate when gamets are formed in a cell division called meiosis
  56. Principal of dominance
    • Dominant alleles
    • a. hide other alleles
    • recessive alleles
    • b. hidden allele that is shown when no dominant allele is shown
  57. Principal of pairs
    • Genes for a trait are in pairs
    • a. one allele from each parent
    • b. an allele refers to the different forms of genes
    • c. two pairs put together makes a genotype
    • d. alleles that are the same are homozygous
    • e. alleles taht are different are heterozygous
    • f. the genotype determines an individual's phenotype
  58. Sex chromosomes
    • 2 different kinds
    • 1. X & Y, XX= female, XY= male
    • 2. chromosomes that contain genes that code for sex characteristics
  59. Linkage groups
    genes that are often inherited together due to close physical proximity on the same chromosome
  60. What is crossing over?
    exchange of genes between homologus chromosomes
  61. sex linkage
    • 1. sex determination
    • 2. genes linked on the sex chromosomes
    • 3. traits inherited more in one sex than the other
  62. sex influence
    • traits inherited more in one sex than the other
    • genes on autosomes that are activated by sex hormones
  63. why can a father only pass x-linked genes to daughters?
    the x does not go to sons on the punnet square
  64. x- linked dominant inherited more in ....
  65. x-linked recessive inherited more in......
  66. Meiosis
    What happens in interphase?
    cells undergo a round of DNA replication
  67. Meiosis
    what happens in prophase 1?
    chromosome pairs with matching homologus chromosome
  68. Meiosis
    What happens in the metaphase 1 ?
    spindle fibers attatch to chromosomes and line up in the middle
  69. Meiosis
    What happens in anaphase 1?
    Fibers pull the chromosomes towards opposite side of cell
  70. Meiosis
    What happens in telophase 1?
    Nuclear membranes form, cell separates into 2
  71. Meiosis
    What happens in prophase 2?
    2 haploid daughter cells, each 1/2 number chromosomes as origional
  72. Meiosis
    What happens in metaphase 2?
    chromosomes line in a similar way to metaphase stage
  73. Meiosis
    What hapens in anaphase 2?
    sister chromatids separate and move to opposite end
  74. Meiosis
    What happens in telophase 2?
    Results in 4 haploid daughter cells (separating)
  75. Meiosis
    What are gametes?
    4 individual sperm cells
  76. How many cell divisions occur during meiosis?
    how many cells are formed?
    • 2
    • 4
Card Set
Biology Semester 2 Final
Mr. Holzer's 2nd Semester Final Flashcards