Physiology- test 2

  1. pulmonary ventilation
    • breathing
    • inspiration/expiration
  2. abdominal breathing
    • contract diaphragm= inhalation
    • relax diaphragm= exhalation
  3. forced/chest breathing
    • external intercostals and anterior scalenes= inhalation
    • rectus abdominus and internal intercostals= exhalation
  4. negative intrapleural pressure due to:
    • low blood pressure
    • elastic recoil
  5. "work" during inhalation
    • compliance work
    • tissue resistance work
    • airway work
  6. "work" during expiration
    • tissue resistance work
    • airway work
    • free work
  7. amount of energy spent on breathing
  8. spirometry
    studying ventilation
  9. tidal volume
    amount of air ventilated during normal breath
  10. inspiratory reserve volume
    amount of air that can be inhaled after tidal volume
  11. vital capacity
    expiratory reserve + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve
  12. residual volume
    air left in lungs after exhalation
  13. total lung capacity
    vital capacity + residual volume
  14. vital capacity dependent on:
    • anatomical factors
    • physiological factors
  15. forced vital capacity
    time to exhale vital capacity
  16. forced expiratory volume
    amount of vital capacity exhaled in 1 second
  17. forced expiratory flow
    flow during middle part of forced vital capacity
  18. minute respiratory colume
    • amount of new air into lungs in 1 minute
    • = tidal volume X respiratory rate = 6 liters/minute
    • (respiratory rate = heart rate)
  19. goal of respiration
    minimize work
  20. anatomical dead space
    anatomical space that takes in air but doesnt participate in respiration
  21. minute alveolar volume
    4.2 liters/minute
  22. diffusion is a function of:
    • concentration gradients
    • solubility of gases
    • nature of barriers
  23. gas solubility
    • function of chemistry
    • - solubility coefficient
    • - molecular weight
  24. gas partial pressure
    • very dynamic
    • pressure differential
  25. Henry's Law
    [dissolved gas] = partial pressure X solubility
  26. diffusion = change in pressure differential
  27. factors affecting lung partial pressures
    • mixing new and old air
    • humidification
    • absorption
    • production
    • ventilation
  28. PO2
  29. PCO2
  30. ventilation-perfusion ratio
    normal= 0.8
  31. as you travel thru circulatory system AWAY from lungs O2 decreases and CO2 increases
  32. 2 forms of O2 transportation
    • MAINLY bound to hemoglobin
    • dissolved gass
  33. Bohr effect
    increase temp or H causes less O2 binding to hemoglobin
  34. 3 ways CO2 is transported
    • MAINLY as bicarbonate ion
    • bound to hemoglobin
    • as dissolved gas
  35. Haldane effect
    increase CO2 release from blood with increased O2 amounts
  36. Neurogenesis
    control of ventilation via medulla
  37. respiratory control center activated -> spinal cord LMNs -> Ms of thorax (diaphragm)
  38. ramp signal of neurons
    • strongest at end of inhalation and beginning of exhalation
    • increase ramp signal causes increase action of diaphragm
  39. modification of ventilation cycle
    • voluntary override by brain
    • stretch receptors of lungs
    • blood chemistry evaluation (MAIN)
  40. central chemoreceptor
    • sensetive to H ions
    • stimulates dorsal respiratory group
    • located in brain
  41. peripheral chemoreceptor
    • aortic and carotid bodies
    • sensitive to O2
    • stimulate dorsal respiratory group
  42. emphysema
    • lung disorder
    • decreased O2 and increased CO2 in lungs/blood
    • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • interalveolar septum destroyed causing cavernous lungs
    • less elastin makes exhalation difficult
  43. pneumothorax
    • air/gas into plaural cavity
    • causes lungs to collapse due to rise in intrapleural pressure
  44. respiratory distress syndrome
    • respiratory membranes fail
    • most common in infants, not enough surfactin
    • adult version life threatening
  45. "wind knocked out"
    due to abnormally large expiratory reserve being expelled
  46. asthma
    • obstructive disorder
    • smaller airways constricted
  47. mountain sickness
    • caused by prolonged time in decreased O2
    • due to hypoxia and polycythemia
  48. physiological shunt
    occurs when ventilation to an alveolar area is cut-off
  49. physiological dead space
    volume of lungs that does not participate in gas exchange
  50. vasodilation
    • local flow controlled by release of local factors
    • allows for more efficient CO2 removal and O2 delivery
  51. pure oxygen
    dangerous to breathe
  52. carbon monoxide poisoning
    CO binds to hemoglobin better than O2
  53. ondine curse
    • no involuntary or automatic control of breathing
    • problem with respiratory control center
  54. breathing alternations
    changes in breath due to just about anything affecting respiratory control center
  55. dorsal respiratory group
    • in nucleus of tractus solitarius
    • contains inspiratory neurons
    • recieves information from chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and stretch receptors
  56. cheyne-stokes breathing
    • lag in adjustment to changing CO2 levels
    • periods of slow deep breathing followed by periods of shallow rapid breathing
Card Set
Physiology- test 2