botany CH10 strategies of inheritance

  1. genes
    an unit of genetic inheritance
  2. mitosis
    a cell divisional process in which the chromosomes are duplicated
  3. meiosis
    a cell divisional process in which the chromosome number is reduced by half
  4. diploid
    having two sets of chromosomes
  5. haploid
    having one set of unpaired chromosomes
  6. antheridium
    the male sex organs of plants other than gymnosperms and angiosperms [pl. antheridia]
  7. archegonium
    the female sex organ of plants, other than angiosperms [pl. archegonia]
  8. gametophyte
    a haploid, gamete-producing plant in the alternation of generations
  9. alternation of generations
    the sequence of a haploid gametophyte and a diploid sporophyte during the course of a life cycle
  10. sporophyte
    a diploid, spore-producing plant in an alternation of generations
  11. sorus
    an area of spore production on the underside of a fern leaf [pl. sori]
  12. microspore
    a spore that develops into a male gametophyte
  13. megaspore
    a spore that develops into a female gametophyte
  14. endosperm
    food-storage tissue in seeds; created when the second sperm in the pollen tube unites with the female gametophyte cell that contains two haploid nuclei
  15. dominant trait
    a characteristic determined by a gene masking the expression of a comparable, but recessive gene
  16. recessive trait
    a genetic characteristic, the expression of which is masked by a comparable but dominant gene
  17. heterozygous
    having both dominant and recessive genes for a particular characteristic on homologous chromosomes
  18. homozygous
    having identical genes on homologous chromosomes
  19. phenotype
    the physical appearance of an organism; the visible expression of genes
  20. genotype
    the genetic constitution of an organism; the actual gene composition
  21. aneuploidy
    "not good"; a condition in which chromosome numbers are not in exact multiples of the haploid set; having extra or missing chromosomes within the nucleus
  22. polyploid
    having three or more sets of chromosomes per cell
  23. homologous chromosomes
    matching chromosome pairs
  24. allopolyploid
    a hybrid arising from the combination of chromosomes from two different species
  25. plant classification pyramid
    • kingdom
    • phyla or divisions
    • classes
    • orders
    • families
    • genera
    • species
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botany CH10 strategies of inheritance
botany CH10 strategies of inheritance