Spring Pre Ap World History Review Pt.1

  1. Ferdinand
    His crew is the first to circumnavigate the globe
  2. Christopher Columbus:
    Sailing for Spain; first to sail west to try to find a way to Asia (in theEast). First to land on the Americas.
  3. Henry the Navigator:
    Portuguese Prince; funded exploration along the coast of Africa
  4. Bartolomeo Dias:
    First European to round the Cape of Good Hope.
  5. Vasco da Gama:
    First to travel to the West Indies from around Africa
  6. Hernan Cortes:
    Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs.
  7. Francisco Pizarro:
    Spanish conquistador who defeated the Incas.
  8. AmerigoVespucci:
    America is named after him
  9. •Columbian Exchange:
    Trading goods, ideas, etcbetween the new world and the old.
  10. •Middle Passage
    Trip from Africa to the New world taken by slaves
  11. •What were explorers looking for?
    –quicker trade routes to Asia so they could get more spices; wanted to bypass Arabs and Italians
  12. •What motivated the Explorers, the rulers
    who sent them, and the conquistadors who followed?
    Glory Gold and God
  13. –Charles V:
    Hapsburg ruler of both Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. Signed the Peace of Augsburg.
  14. –LouisXIV:
    Absolute ruler of France who revoked the Edict of Nantes, spent tons of moneyon his palace at Versailles and was known as the “sunking”
  15. –CharlesI:
    Stewart king of England who is forced to sign the Petition of Rights;dismantles Parliament; challenged by the Roundheads under Cromwell during theEnglish Civil War; eventually tried for treason and executed by Parliament. –
  16. –OliverCromwell:
    Leader of the Roundheads against Charles I during theEnglish Civil War. After Charles hadbeen beheaded, Cromwell was the Puritan leader of the Commonwealth of England.
  17. –CharlesII:
    part of the “Restoration” ofthe English monarchy.
  18. Williamand Mary:
    William and Mary’srise to the throne was called the “Glorious Revolution”.forced to sign the English Bill of Rights,making England a constitutional monarchy.
  19. –Frederick the Great:
    Proved Prussia’sdominance with his strong military.
  20. –Peter the Great:
    Forces changes in Russia in order to make them more modern like Western Europe
  21. –Catherine the Great:
    Continued Peter the Great’sreforms, portioned Poland along with Austria and Prussia.
  22. –The Treaty of Westphalia:
    Treaty that ended the 30 years war. Itshould that France was the clear winner while Spain and Austria were the clearlosers.
  23. The Seven Years War:
    Worldwide war between theEuropean Powers. Fought by Prussia,Austria, Russia, England, and France in Europe, India, Africa, and the Americas
  24. Thomas Hobbes:
    All people are naturally cruel, selfish,and greedy.
  25. –Social contract
    where they give up the state of nature for an organized society
  26. –John Locke:
    Claimed that men were born with natural rights –life, liberty, and property. If the government fails to secure these rights,then the people should overthrow the government.
  27. –Voltaire:
    Wrote Candide. Defended the freedom of speech. Said democracy was a bad form of government and a good monarch was agood form.
  28. –Montesquieu:
    Proponent of separation of powers and checks and balanceswithin the government.
  29. Rousseau:
    People are naturally good and society corrupts them..
  30. –Diderot:
    Wrote the Encyclopedia
  31. –Mary Wollstonecraft:
    Woman who said that women should not be completely dependent on their husbands.Fought for equal education for girls and boys.
  32. –Adam Smith:
    argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate business activity. Hewas a strong supporter of laissez faire.Wrote Wealthof Nations
  33. –Articles of Confederation:
    Original document that formed the US government after the RevolutionaryWar. It was too weak to govern the newcountry and was replaced by the Constitution.
  34. –The French and Indian War:
    War between the British and the French in North America. This helped cause theAmerican Revolution
  35. –Stamp Act/Quartering Act:
    Stamp Act was a tax on all legal documents/newspapers where the Quartering Actforced colonists to house and feed troops. Both are causes of the American Revolution.
  36. –Federalist Papers:
    Written by the Federalists (who supported a strong federal government) duringthe argument over the adoption of a new Constitution.
  37. –King George III:
    King of England during the American War of Independence.
  38. Thomas Jefferson:
    Founding father who was the main authorof the Declaration of Independence
  39. –George Washington:
    Revolutionary leader who led the Continental Army during the AmericanRevolution. First President of the US.
  40. –Abraham Lincoln:
    President of the US during the Civil War. His election in 1860 was the final straw, causing the South tosecede. He issued the EmancipationProclamation.
  41. –Jefferson Davis:
    President of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War.
  42. Frederick Douglas:
    Ex-slave who spoke out in the North onthe evils of slavery. Helped cause the abolitionist movement to grow
  43. –13th Amendment:
    Freed the slaves throughout the US
  44. –14th Amendment:
    Said no one could be discriminated against based on race. All get “equal protection under the law”
  45. –15th Amendment:
    Gave African American MEN the right to vote.
  46. –19th Amendment:
    Gave women the right to vote.
  47. –Manifest Destiny:
    Idea that the US should spread from sea to sea
  48. King Louis XVI:
    King of France at the onset of theFrench Revolution.
  49. –Marie Antoinette:
    Austrian princess who married Louis XVI to become Queen of France before theFrench Revolution.
  50. –Robespierre:
    Leader of the Committee of Public Safety and the mastermind behind the “Reignof Terror”.He was finally beheaded by the guillotine just as he had killed. The Directory was a reaction to his reign.
  51. –Tennis Court Oath:
    When members of the Third Estatedeclared themselves the National Assembly they were locked out of their meetinghall. They then took to a nearby tenniscourt where they vowed that they would not separate until they had created asound constitution.
  52. –Storming of the Bastille:
    First symbolic act of the people of Paris. They stormed the prison the Bastille looking for weapons.
  53. –The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen:
    Modeled on the AmericanDeclaration of Independence it announced that all French men were equal beforethe law and was the first step toward a constitution made by the NationalAssembly.
  54. –Beheading of Louis & Marie:
    Both were tried for treason and beheaded.
  55. –Reign of Terror:
    Led by the Jacobins, Robespierre,and the Committee of Public Safety, this was a time when about 400,000Frenchmen/women were beheaded by the guillotine for anti-revolutionaryactivity.
  56. –The Directory:
    A 5 man body set up by the Constitution of 1975. It was in response to the Reign of Terror andtried to handle France politically. TheDirectory was too weak to hold power and turned to the young Napoleon forhelp.
  57. –Napoleon:
    Emperor of France. His rise to powermarks the end of the French Revolution. He ruled all of continental Europeexcept for Sweden, Russia, the Ottoman Empire, and Great Britain.
  58. –Prince Clemens von Metternich:
    The Prince of Austria and the leader and mastermind behind the Congress ofVienna.
  59. –Napoleonic Code:
    Code of law under Napoleon that embodied Enlightenment principles such asequality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and advancementbased on merit.
  60. –ContinentalSystem:
    Napoleon’sattempt to hurt Great Britain economically. Closed European ports to British goods. Failed
  61. –100days: –Congressof Vienna:Meeting between France, Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain to decidewhat would happen to Napoleon’s empire after Napoleon’sdefeat at Waterloo. The countries redrewthe boundaries of Europe with no regard for nationalism, but did create abalance of power that kept Europe from war until WWI in the 1900s.
    After Napoleon’sfirst exile to Elba, he escapes and returns to France. He retakes control for100 days. He fights at the battle ofWaterloo and loses to the British. He isonce again exiled, this time to St. Helena where he remains until he dies.
  62. –Congressof Vienna:
    Meeting between France, Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain to decidewhat would happen to Napoleon’s empire after Napoleon’sdefeat at Waterloo. The countries redrewthe boundaries of Europe with no regard for nationalism, but did create abalance of power that kept Europe from war until WWI in the 1900s.
Card Set
Spring Pre Ap World History Review Pt.1