chapter 27 male reproductive.txt

  1. Organs of the reproductive system
    • * Organs produce and maintain sex cells (sperm)
    • * Trransports sex cells
    • * Secrete sex hormones
    • * Primary sex organ
    • o Testes
    • * Accessory sex organs
    • o Epididymis, vasdeferes, ejaculatory ducts, urethra, seminal vesicle prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands
    • * Both testes are within a sac called scrotum
    • * Covered by a tough fiberous connective tissue that forms 250 lobules
    • * Each lobule contains 1-4 long coiled structures called seminiferous tubules
    • * Seminiferous tubules form ducts that join to form the epidymus
  3. Sperm cells
    • Sperm cells collect in the lumen of the seminiferous tubles
    • Stored the epididymus where they mature
    • Sperm cells are made of the head, body, tails
    • Head of sperm contains an acrosome that is able to penetrate the egg during fertilization
  4. vas deferens
    • Plural vas deferens
    • Know as duct deferens
    • Passes throu the inguinal canal
    • Outside the bladder, it unites with the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct
  5. Spermatogenises
    • Formation of the sperm cells
    • Spermatogonoia are undifferentiated cell that havce complete cest of chomasome 46
    • Spermatogonium iunder goes cell division primary spermatocytes 46
    • At puberty, the primary spermatocyte undergo a first step in cell division and becomes secondary spermatocytes
    • The second step od cell division yeilds spermatrids 23
    • Spermatid mature into sperm cells 23
  6. Seminal vesicle
    • Convoluted sac like structure
    • Attached to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder
    • Secretes alkalind fluid to regulate the pH of the tubular contents to provide a safe enviroment for the sperm
    • Sevrets fructose that provides energy for sperm
    • Secretes prostaglandins which stimulate muscle contraction in the female reproductive organs
  7. Epididymus
    • Plural epididymides
    • Tightly coiled about 6ft long
    • Emerges from top of the testis
    • Immature sperm cells that reach it mature and become moble
  8. The prostate gland
    • A chestnut shape structure that surrounds the proximal portion of the urethre
    • Secretes a thin milky fluid with an alkaline pH to neutralize the acidic enviroment around the sperm cell
    • Enchances mobility of sperm cell
    • Neutrilizes the acidic enviroment of vagina
  9. The scrotum
    • A pouch of skin and subcutaneous tissues
    • Has a medial septum that separates it into two chambers
    • Protects and help regulate the tempature of the testis by keeping it two degrees lower than the body temapature
    • Contains smooth muscles that shrink and raise the testes up during cold so the are closer to the pelvic cavity to absorb heat
    • Exposure to heat causes the muscle to relax
  10. The bulbourethreal gland
    • Each about 1 cm in diameter
    • Secrete mucus like fluid in response to sexual stimulation
    • Lubricates the end of the penis in preparation for sexual intercourse
  11. The penis
    • Cylindrical organ that convey urine and semen through the urethra
    • Enlarges and stiffens during erection
    • Shaft of the penis contains three columns of erectile tissue: a pair of corpa caverenosa and a single corpus spongiosum
    • Corpus spongiosum enlarges distally to form the glans penis
    • Glans penis contains the sensory receptors for sexual stimulation
    • The prepuce is a fold of skin that covers the glans as a sheath
  12. How many Sperm cells do males have?
    • Semen consists of sperm cells and the fluids secreted from the seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands, and the prostate gland.
    • Volume per ejactualtion varies from 2-5 ml
    • There are 120 million sperm cells per ml
    • Sperm cells are not motile when stored they begin to swim when mixed with the semen secretion
  13. Hormonal control
    • The pituitary gland is located in the sella turcical of the sphemoid bone
    • The size of a pea grain (ball sac)
    • Made of two parts:
    • Anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary
  14. Anterior pituitary gland
    • Adrenocorticotropi hormone (ACTH): causes the adrenal gland to release its hormone
    • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH): acts on the testes and ovaries
    • Lutenizing hormone (LH): acts on the testes and ovaries
  15. LH and FSH
    • LH acts in interstitial cells of the testes to secrete male sex hormones
    • FSH stimulates permatogenesis
  16. Testosterone
    • Secretion starts during fetal development till few weeks after birth
    • It then ceases during childhood
    • Surges at puberty
  17. Function of testosterone
    • *increase growth of body hair
    • *Thickening of vocal cords
    • *Thickening of skin
    • *Increases muscle growth
    • *Thickening of bones
    • Increases rate of erythrocytes production
    • Stimulates sexual ability
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chapter 27 male reproductive.txt
chapter 27 male reproductive