brain 3

  1. Thalamus
    specializes in the relay of signals coming from any area to the cerebral cortex; has traveling axons traveling to areas of cerebral cortex with efferent signals going to sensory areas & afferent signals arriving from conscious senses
  2. hypothalamus
    main visceral control center and controls the autonomic NS, emotional responses, regulates body temperature, regulates hunger and thirst, controls behavior and sleep-wake cycles, as well as the endocrine system and formation of memory.
  3. epithalamus
    secretes melatonin which signals the nighttime stage of the sleep-wake cycle
  4. pituitary gland
    part of the endocrine system and releases hormones.
  5. What are the diencephalon structures?
    thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, pituitary gland
  6. brain stem
    • produce automatic behavior needed for survival
    • passage way for fiber tracts to exit brain
    • contains 10 of the 12 cranial nerves
  7. midbrain
    relays tracts that connect midbrain to cerebellum & another set to spinal cord and is also divided by cerebral aquaduct into superior cerebral peduncles and corpora quadrigemina
  8. periaqueductal gray matter
    gray matter that the midbrain has that send signals involved in "fight or flight" response as well as mediate visceral pain response
  9. corpora quadrigemina
    involved in visual & auditory reflexes
  10. pons
    forms a ventral bridge between the halves of the cerebellum
  11. medulla oblongata
    holds sensory nuclei & nuclei for control of autonomic visceral functions (heartbeat rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, actions like coughing, sneezing, hiccups, swallowing)
  12. pyramids
    area where most of pyramidal tracts cross over
  13. cerebellum
    has two lobed hemispheres connecting via vermis

    • coordinates movement & makes it smooth
    • helps in maintaing posture & equilibrium
    • involved in cognition
  14. cerebellar peduncles
    connect medulla oblongata to cerebellum
  15. Limbic system
    - found in each cerebral hemisphere & diencephalons

    - emotional brain

    - contains amygdala, cingulated gyrus
  16. amygdala
    processes fear, threatening facial expression, & direction of a gaze
  17. cingulated gyrus
    controls thought shifts, pain interpretations, & conflict resolutionn & also involved in memory processing
  18. Reticular Formation
    clusters of neurons (white matter) that run through the core of the brainstem; involved in maintaining brain alert; arouses brain from sleep
  19. protection of brain
    • protected by blood brain barrier & meninges
    • cushion by cerebral spinal fluid
  20. Meninges
    • bones of the skull that protects the brain
    • line brain & spinal cord
    • enclose blood vessels
    • contain CSF
    • cover & protect brain & spinal cord
  21. Dura matter
    outermost & toughest
  22. arachnoid matter
    middle layer that has subarachnoid space filled with CSF
  23. pia matter
    has fine blood vessel & closest to brain
  24. What are the layers of meninges?
    dura matter, arachnoid matter, pia matter
  25. Cerbrospinal fluid
    • serves as cushion
    • gives buoyancy to brain
    • nourishes brain
    • removes waste
    • produced in choroid plexus from blood plasma
  26. blood brain barrier
    protects brain & does not allow toxins to cross from capillaries into brain (note: anything fat soluble may cross this barrier)
Card Set
brain 3
D, E, & F, and G & H in lecture